Alfred H. Baumhover Papers: Screwworm Eradication Program Records

Alfred H. Baumhover Papers: Screwworm Eradication Program Records Introduction

The Alfred H. Baumhover Papers: Screwworm Eradication Program Records contains materials that span from 1917-2002, with the bulk from 1950-1977. These materials were collected by Baumhover during his involvement in the eradication of the screwworm from the United States and the island of Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles. They occupy 19 linear feet of space and are housed in 29 archival boxes and a map case drawer. The papers were donated to Special Collections, National Agricultural Library on November 25, 2002.

Description and processing of the collection was initiated by Sarah Durling, a graduate student in the College of Information Studies at the University of Maryland, June 2004. Processing and production of the finding aid were completed by Kate Richards, Project Manager, October 2005.


Disclaimer

Special Collections of the National Agricultural Library (NAL) acquires, arranges, describes, preserves and makes available rare materials significant to the history of agriculture. Materials are obtained through donation or active collection in accordance with the established Special Collections collection development policy. Special Collections staff organize and describe materials according to archival principles and create descriptions and indexes to enhance access. Staff do not edit or otherwise modify the original materials. The views expressed in the collections do not necessarily reflect the policies of the National Agricultural Library or the United States Department of Agriculture.


Biographical Sketch

Alfred H. Baumhover was born on June 12, 1921, and raised on the family farm in Carroll, Iowa. At the age of 16, he assumed the responsibility of running the farm after his father suffered an accident. Nevertheless, Baumhover pursued his education and received his bachelor of science from Iowa State College in 1949.

Upon graduation, Baumhover went to work for the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). He spent two years as the area supervisor of the USDA Grasshopper Control Division in Great Falls, Montana. In 1951, his position was abolished due to the commercial availability of insecticides for grasshoppers. Baumhover chose to join Raymond C. Bushland and work on farm pests at the USDA's new laboratory in Kerrville, Texas.

Baumhover arrived when the finishing touches were being completed on Edward Fred Knipling's Sterilized Insect Technique (SIT), an autocidal theory of total insect population management, to be tested on the screwworm. The screwworm is a notorious flesh eating parasite of warm blooded mammals. Baumhover became the lead field agent for the experimental efforts to control the screwworm. His base of operations was transferred from Texas to Florida. From there, he worked on the Sanibel Island, Florida, tests and was selected to lead the landmark Curacao, Netherlands Antilles, Experiment in 1954, which proved the efficacy of SIT. For his part in the eradication of screwworms on Curacao, Baumhover was conferred knighthood in the Order of Orange-Nassau in 1955 by Queen Juliana of the Netherlands.

After Curacao, Baumhover returned to Florida to participate in the successful screwworm eradication efforts there and across the Southeast United States. By 1959, screwworms had been eradicated from that region. He then went to Texas to participate in the even more daunting anti-screwworm campaign in the Southwest United States. Even though the Southwest was declared screwworm free in 1966, it was not until 1982 that eradication truly occurred. In 1964, Baumhover accepted a position with the USDA's Tobacco Insects Investigations and continued there until his retirement to Minnesota on February 4, 1984. Throughout his tenure with the Tobacco Insects Investigations, Baumhover continued to serve as a consultant for the screwworm eradication campaign.


Historical Sketch

Below is a timeline of U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) screwworm research highlights.

1858: First reported screwworm cases on Devil's Island, French Guiana

1933: Emory Clayton Cushing and Walter S. Patton recognized screwworm fly as its own species, Cochliomyia hominivorax (different from the blowfly species)

1934: USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) established research station at Valdosta, Georgia (closed 1936) to conduct research on screwworms by scientists Ernest William Laake and Edward Fred Knipling

1935: ARS secured funding for research on screwworms. Raymond C. Bushland began research on artificial diets for rearing screwworms.

1937: Bushland and Knipling are transferred to ARS laboratory in Menard, Texas. Bushland began research on controlling screwworms through chemical means. Knipling began research on sterile male technique, an autocidal theory of total insect population management.

1938: USDA developed Smear 62, an insecticidal wound treatment

1939: Bushland is transferred to Orlando, Florida, to conduct research on mosquito control

1940: Knipling is transferred to Orlando, Florida, to conduct research on insects affecting man

1946: Bushland transferred to ARS laboratory in Kerrville, Texas. Knipling transferred to USDA-ARS headquarters in Washington, D.C.

1950: Arthur W. Lindquist introduced Knipling to Hermann Joseph Muller's research on genetic mutations in fruit flies by radiation. Bushland and Donald E. Hopkins began tests on sterilization of screwworms using radiation.

1951: Alfred H. Baumhover arrived at Kerrville, Texas, to work on screwworm eradication using sterile male technique. Sanibel Island, Florida, was the first field test to use the sterile male technique.

1954: Baumhover traveled to Curacao, Netherlands Antilles, and began successful screwworm eradication campaign using sterile male technique

1955: Baumhover returned to Orlando, Florida, to work on eradication of screwworms from the Southeast United States. Mass rearing techniques were developed.

1955-1957: A mass fly production facility for rearing screwworms is built in Bithlo, Florida. Screwworms successfully eradicated in a 2000 square mile field test area near Orlando, Florida.

1958: ARS built mass fly production facility near Sebring, Florida

1959: Screwworms successfully eradicated from the Southeast United States

1962: ARS Southwest United States screwworm eradication program began with flies produced at the Kerrville, Texas, ARS laboratory. Mass production facility built at Mission, Texas.

1963: ARS developed program specializations. Billy Gene Hightower studied screwworm ecology in Texas. Alfred H. Baumhover studied sterile fly distribution. Leo E. LaChance studied screwworm genetics. Maxwell M. Crystal studied chemosterilants.

1964: Baumhover transferred to Oxford, North Carolina, to work with the Tobacco Insects Investigations

1966: USDA declared screwworms eradicated from Southwest United States, except Texas continued to be infested until 1982. United States and Mexico conducted a feasibility survey for a screwworm eradication program in Mexico, which resulted in the establishment of a screwworm eradication program in Mexico.

1974: The Lincoln-Eden Report, "The Southwestern Screwworm Eradication Program: A Review," is published. Charles G. Lincoln and William Gibbs Eden were tasked with evaluating the Southwestern United States Screwworm Eradication program after poor results spanning 1972-1974. They concluded that the program was a success despite some minor faults and the research should continue.

1977: The ARS Screwworm Research Unit relocated from the Mission, Texas, laboratory to a sterile fly production facility near Tuxtla Gutierrez in Chiapas, Mexico

1984: A new gelled diet is developed by ARS for use in mass rearing screwworms

1990: "Severn Run's Cazador," a German wirehaired pointer, is trained by John Bertram Welch to detect screwworm larvae and screwworm infested animals

1991: Mexico was declared screwworm free

1994: Screwworms eradicated from Belize and Guatemala. Panama City, Republic of Panama, became the headquarters for the USDA-ARS Screwworm Research Unit.

1995: Screwworms eradicated from El Salvador

1996: Screwworms eradicated from Nicaragua

1999: Screwworms eradicated from Honduras

2000: Costa Rica declared screwworm free


Series Description

Series I. Personal Work Records. 1949-2002. 0.75 box.

This series contains Baumhover's handwritten notes, performance reviews, and awards and recognitions for his involvement in screwworm eradication efforts. The materials are arranged chronologically.

Series II. Correspondence. 1943-1991. 1 box.

This series consists of seven subseries: General, Curacao, Southeast United States, Southwest United States, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and Other Locations. Some of the subseries contain research data because the authors attached correlating data to their correspondence's subject matter. The materials are arranged chronologically within each subseries.

  • Subseries II.A. General. 1958-1984.
  • This subseries includes correspondence not relating to a particular geographical region. Subjects cover screwworm research, use of screwworm photographs and film, a request for a reprint, and highlights of Baumhover's career.

  • Subseries II.B. Curacao. 1953-1976.
  • This subseries includes correspondence relating to the screwworm eradication efforts on the island of Curacao, part of the Netherlands Antilles. Subjects cover communication with government officials to conduct a test for screwworm eradication on Curacao, screwworm research, and Curacao's re-infestation with screwworms.

  • Subseries II.C. Southeast United States. 1943-1974.
  • This subseries includes correspondence relating to the screwworm eradication efforts in the Southeast United States, particularly in Florida. Subjects cover screwworm surveys, fly trap design, screwworm test areas and production facilities at Trenton, Bithlo, Sanibel Island, and Orlando, Florida, screwworm life cycle research, and use of radiation.

  • Subseries II.D. Southwest United States. 1951-1977.
  • This subseries includes correspondence relating to the screwworm eradication efforts in the Southwest United States, particularly in Texas. Subjects cover screwworm surveys, documentation of farmers' financial losses due to screwworms, screwworm research results, and the Lincoln-Eden report.

  • Subseries II.E. Mexico. 1974-1991.
  • This subseries includes correspondence relating to the screwworm eradication efforts in Mexico. Subjects cover biometrician Victor Beal's analysis of Mexican field data and invitations to dedication ceremonies.

  • Subseries II.F. Puerto Rico. 1953-1975.
  • This subseries includes correspondence relating to the screwworm eradication efforts in Puerto Rico. Subjects cover Baumhover's 1953 survey of Puerto Rico and screwworm research.

  • Subseries II.G. Other Locations. 1952-1975.
  • This subseries includes correspondence relating to the screwworm eradication efforts in the Bahamas, Jamaica, and Uruguay. Subjects cover screwworm research in the Bahamas and Jamaica and the screwworm infestation in Uruguay.

Series III. Memoranda. 1943-1997. 4 boxes.

This series consists of seven subseries: General, Curacao, Southeast United States, Southwest United States, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and Other Locations. There are some research data and weekly reports included in this series because they are in the memoranda format. The materials are arranged chronologically within each subseries.

  • Subseries III.A. General. 1943-1980.
  • This subseries includes memoranda not relating to a particular geographical location. Subjects cover screwworm releases, summary of conferences, population control of the screwworm, and photographic exhibit materials.

  • Subseries III.B. Curacao. 1953-1954.
  • This subseries includes memoranda relating to the screwworm eradication program in Curacao, Netherlands Antilles. Subjects include screwworm research, data, and weekly reports. Some of the memoranda are from Arthur W. Lindquist.

  • Subseries III.C. Southeast United States. 1943-1983.
  • This subseries includes memoranda relating to the screwworm eradication program in the Southeast United States, particularly in Florida. Subjects cover screwworm surveys, field tests and data, weekly reports, screwworm smears, and screwworm research. Some of the memoranda were written by Edward Fred Knipling, Gaines W. Eddy, and Raymond C. Bushland.

  • Subseries III.D. Southwest United States. 1951-1977.
  • This subseries includes memoranda relating to the screwworm eradication program in the Southwest United States, particularly in Florida. Subjects cover screwworm surveys, screwworm research, status of screwworm programs, radiation use, and weekly reports. Some of the memoranda were written by Edward Fred Knipling, Victor C. Beal, and James Wendell Snow.

  • Subseries III.E. Mexico. 1964-1997.
  • This subseries includes memoranda relating to the screwworm eradication program in Mexico. Subjects cover weekly reports and a memorandum of understanding. The majority of the materials are from the Comísíon Mexico-Americana.

  • Subseries III.F. Puerto Rico. 1953-1975.
  • This subseries includes memoranda relating to the screwworm eradication program in Puerto Rico. Subjects cover screwworm survey, current status report, travel reports, and screwworm research.

  • Subseries III.G. Other Locations. 1952-1977.
  • This subseries includes memoranda relating to the screwworm eradication efforts in the Bahamas and Jamaica. Subjects cover screwworm research and a feasibility study for screwworm eradication in Jamaica.

Series IV. Meeting Materials. 1951-1997. 2 boxes.

This series consists of three subseries: Programs and Agendas, Presentations, and Meeting Minutes. The materials are arranged chronologically within each subseries.

  • Subseries IV.A. Programs and Agendas. 1951-1997.
  • This subseries includes program and agendas from meetings that Baumhover attended regarding screwworm eradication.

  • Subseries IV.B. Presentations. 1957-1974.
  • This subseries includes presentations given by Baumhover regarding the screwworm eradication program.

  • Subseries IV.C. Meeting Minutes. 1959-1977.
  • This subseries includes meeting minutes from various conferences or staff meetings. The majority of the materials are from staff conferences from the U.S. Livestock Insects Research Laboratory in Kerrville, Texas (now the Knipling-Bushland U.S. Livestock Insect Research Laboratory).

Series V. Research Data. 1935-1984. 4 boxes.

This series consists of six subseries: General, Curacao, Southeast United States, Southwest United States, Puerto Rico, and Other Locations. Some of the data is in map form. Also included in this subseries are surveys conducted regarding screwworm research and population. The materials are arranged chronologically within each subseries.

  • Subseries V.A. General. 1947-1963.
  • This subseries contains research data which does not relate to a particular geographical location. Materials include screwworm identification and radiation rates.

  • Subseries V.B. Curacao. 1947-1964.
  • This subseries includes data from screwworm research conducted on the island of Curacao, Netherlands Antilles. Materials include fly mortality data, locations of research animal pens and fly traps, screwworm fly release data, meteorological data, and egg mass data.

  • Subseries V.C. Southeast United States. 1935-1960.
  • This subseries includes data from screwworm research conducted in the Southeast United States, particularly in Florida. Materials include state and county maps, overwintering data, trap data, meteorological data, field test data, weekly reports and radiation data.

  • Subseries V.D. Southwest United States. 1945-1984.
  • This subseries includes data from the screwworm research conducted in the Southwest United States, particularly in Texas. Materials include state and county maps documenting infestations, overwintering data, number of screwworm cases, progress reports, status reports, and fly release data.

  • Subseries V.E. Puerto Rico. 1972-1974.
  • This subseries includes data from the screwworm research conducted in Puerto Rico. Materials include egg mass data, screwworm population tabulations, and meteorological information.

  • Subseries V.F. Other Locations. 1959, 1974.
  • This subseries includes data from screwworm research conducted in the Bahamas and confirmed screwworm cases in the Caribbean.

Series VI. Reports. 1934-1999. 10 boxes.

This series consists of six subseries: General, Curacao, Southeast United States, Southwest United States, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and Other Locations. Materials include unpublished reports, status reports, quarterly reports, and screwworm surveys. The materials are arranged chronologically within each subseries.

  • Subseries VI.A. General. 1936-1999.
  • This subseries includes reports focusing on screwworm research not covering a specific geographical location. Some of the reports are unpublished, internal reports about screwworm research and eradication. Topics include use of radiation, results of field tests, screwworm sterilization, summary of research, and screwworm control.

  • Subseries VI.B. Curacao. 1954.
  • This subseries includes 1954 quarterly reports for Research Line Project I-h-9-2: "Field studies on the behavior of gamma-ray sterilized screwworm flies."

  • Subseries VI.C. Southeast United States. 1934-1974.
  • This subseries includes screwworm surveys, unpublished reports, progress reports, and quarterly reports regarding screwworm research and eradication in the Southeast United States, particularly in Florida. Topics include results of field tests, screwworm control, research activities, and screwworm strains.

  • Subseries VI.D. Southwest United States. 1952-1977.
  • This subseries includes unpublished reports, quarterly reports, and status reports regarding screwworm research and eradication in the Southwest United States, particularly in Texas. Topics include research activities, radiation results, and screwworm cases. Also included is a copy of the Charles Lincoln and William Gibbs Eden's 1974 report, "The Southwestern Screwworm Eradication Program: A Review."

  • Subseries VI.E. Mexico. 1966-1988.
  • This subseries includes screwworm status reports regarding screwworm research and eradication in Mexico.

  • Subseries. VI.F. Puerto Rico. 1972-1975.
  • This subseries includes weekly activity reports and trip reports regarding screwworm research and eradication in Puerto Rico. Topics include research activities, review of the Puerto Rico program, and the sterile male release technique.

  • Subseries VI.G. Other Locations. 1976.
  • This subseries contains the "Report of the Screwworm Pre-Evaluation Committee" for Jamaica.

Series VII. Writings. 1917-1997. 5 boxes.

This series consists of six subseries: Manuscripts by Baumhover, Manuscripts Reviewed by Baumhover, Proposals, Publications, Clippings, and Newsletters. Most of the materials are arranged chronologically within each subseries, with the exceptions of Publications and Clippings. The Publications subseries is arranged by author while the Clippings subseries is arranged by geographical location.

  • Subseries VII.A. Manuscripts by Baumhover. 1957-1987.
  • This subseries contains handwritten manuscripts by Baumhover. Manuscripts included are "Miscellaneous Test, Orlando, Florida," "Status of Sterilization as an Insect Control Method," and chapter two for Norvan Meyer's History of the Mexico and United States Screwworm Eradication Program.

  • Subseries VII.B. Manuscripts reviewed by Baumhover. 1957-1987.
  • This subseries includes manuscripts that Baumhover edited either as a reviewer for a journal or as a request by fellow colleagues. Topics cover screwworm sterilization, screwworm behavior, screwworm populations, screwworm eradication program, and research results.

  • Subseries VII.C. Proposals. 1951-1974.
  • This subseries includes proposals for research and grant funding for the screwworm eradication program.

  • Subseries VII.D. Publications. 1917-1997.
  • This subseries includes published manuscripts relating to screwworm research and eradication efforts. The majority of the materials are reprints of journal articles. Topics include the sterile male technique, screwworm control, the screwworm fly, comparison of techniques, research, and data, insecticides, screwworm behavior, research theories, and genetics. Also included are Baumhover's "A Personal Account of Programs to Eradicate the Screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, in the United States and Mexico with Special Emphasis on the Florida Program" and Norvan Meyer's manuscript for History of the Mexico and United States Screwworm Eradication Program.

  • Subseries VII.E. Clippings. 1952-1977.
  • This subseries consists of newspaper and magazine clippings pertaining to the eradication of the screwworm.

  • Subseries VII.F. Newsletters. 1955.
  • This subseries includes the monthly newsletters of the U.S. Livestock Insects Research Laboratory (now the Knipling-Bushland U.S. Livestock Insects Research Laboratory), Kerrville, Texas, for 1955.

Series VIII. Public Information. 1922-1976. 1 box.

This series consists of six subseries: USDA Publications, Bulletins, Press Releases, Brochures and Advertisements, Information/Promotional Materials, and Travel Information. The materials are arranged chronologically within each subseries.

  • Subseries VIII.A. USDA Publications. 1922-1976.
  • This subseries includes publications produced by the USDA to educate the public about screwworms and the eradication program. Topics include screwworm control, rearing methods, methods for screwworm eradication, and status of the eradication program.

  • Subseries VIII.B. Bulletins. 1939-1976.
  • This subseries includes non-USDA publications. Most of the bulletins are products of the University of Florida's Agricultural Experiment Station. Topics include screwworm control, sterilization, and soils of Florida.

  • Subseries VIII.C. Press Releases. 1933-1964.
  • This subseries includes press releases informing the public about the activities of the screwworm eradication programs. Topics include screwworm outbreaks, screwworm treatments and control methods, and screwworm eradication in the Southwest United States.

  • Subseries VIII.D. Brochures and Advertisements. 1950-1973.
  • This subseries includes brochures to inform the public about screwworms and the eradication program. Also included are advertisements for screwworm eradication products.

  • Subseries VIII.E. Information/Promotional Materials. 1962-1976.
  • This subseries includes materials for informational packets and press kits.

  • Subseries VIII.F. Travel Information. 1950-1976.
  • This subseries includes travel information for areas involved in screwworm eradication programs.

Series IX. Directories. 1953-1976. 0.25 box.

This series consists of four subseries: General, Southeast United States, Southwest United States, and Puerto Rico. The materials are arranged chronologically within each subseries.

  • Subseries IX.A. General. 1957-1966.
  • This subseries includes personnel directories not easily associated with a specific geographical region.

  • Subseries IX.B. Southeast United States. 1953-1958.
  • This subseries includes USDA and Florida Livestock Board personnel directories for the Southeast United States.

  • Subseries IX.C. Southwest United States. 1961-1964.
  • This subseries includes USDA personnel directories for the Southwest United States.

  • Subseries IX.D. Puerto Rico. 1974-1976.
  • This subseries includes a personnel directory for the University of Puerto Rico, Agricultural Experiment Station.

Series X. Photographs. 1935-1966. 0.25 box.

This series consists of five subseries: General, Curacao, Southeast United States, Southwest United States, and Mexico. The materials are arranged chronologically within each subseries.

  • Subseries X.A. General. 1953-1963.
  • This subseries includes photographs and negatives used in a publication, rejected for use in a lecture, and of screwworm research.

  • Subseries X.B. Curacao. 1954-1955.
  • This subseries includes photographs of screwworm research and eradication efforts. Also included are photographs of Baumhover's knighthood ceremony.

  • Subseries X.C. Southeast United States. 1935-1957.
  • This subseries includes photographs of screwworm research.

  • Subseries X.D. Southwest United States. 1955-1965.
  • This subseries includes photographs of a service award ceremony for the Kerrville, Texas, Laboratory, the dedication of the plant in Mission, Texas, and screwworm research.

  • Subseries X.E. Mexico. 1966.
  • This subseries includes photographs of screwworm research which accompany the "Report of Findings on the Mexico-United States Screwworm Survey and Plan of Operations for a Possible Eradication Program in Mexico."

Series XI. Artifacts. 1956. 2 folders.

This series contains screwworm fly cartons and release cartons used in the screwworm eradication programs.


Scope and Content Note

Alfred H. Baumhover, an entomologist for the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), is best known for his work in the screwworm eradication program. The collection spans the years 1917 to 2002, and contains materials relating to Baumhover's involvement in the screwworm eradication through his work as a field entomologist and as a consultant. There are personal work records, research data, correspondence, memoranda, meeting materials, reports, publications, photographs, and ephemera.

The bulk of the materials relate to the screwworm eradication efforts in several geographical locations. The majority of the materials correlate to the Southeast and Southwest regions of the United States. Materials pertaining to varying screwworm research projects can be found in Correspondence (Series II), Memoranda (Series III), Research Data (Series V) and Reports (Series VI). Baumhover's personal work records can be found in Series I. The Public Information materials (Series VIII) include items produced by both federal and state governments for public education on the screwworm eradication efforts. In this series, one can find USDA publications, bulletins, press releases, and advertisements regarding the screwworm eradication efforts. Fly release cartons can be found in Series XI.

In addition to doing research, Baumhover attended conferences, programs, and dedication ceremonies regarding the screwworm eradication program (Series IV). Photographs from these meetings, as well as ones which depict research, can be found in Series X. Baumhover's writings, along with the manuscripts he reviewed or received, can be found in Series VII. Personnel directories are in Series IX.

Baumhover was involved in the screwworm eradication efforts during the same time that Raymond C. Bushland, Edward Fred Knipling, Arthur W. Lindquist, and Andrew J. Graham were participating in screwworm research. One can find correspondence, memoranda, and reports from these individuals. In addition, one can find reports from scientists Wesley G. Bruce, Billy Gene Hightower, and Donald E. Hopkins, among others.

The appendix contains a listing of related collections in the Screwworm Eradication Program Records. Many of the original items from this collection have been scanned and are available on the web at http://specialcollections.nal.usda.gov/screwworm/index.


Bibliography

The following sources were used to write the biographical sketch, historical sketch, and the scope and content sections:

Baumhover, A.H. "A Personal Account of Programs to Eradicate the Screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, in the United States and Mexico with Special Emphasis on the Florida Program." Accessed October 3, 2005 from http://www.flaentsoc.org/webbaum/baumhover.html.

Baumhover, Alfred H., Papers: Screwworm Eradication Program Records. Manuscript Collection 266. Special Collections, National Agricultural Library.

Oral Histories: Screwworm Eradication Program Records. Manuscript Collection 305. Special Collections, National Agricultural Library.

Screwworm Research Unit. "History of USDA-ARS Screwworm Research and the USDA-ARS Screwworm Research Unit." Accessed October 3, 2005 from http://www.screwworm.ars.usda.gov/HISTORY1.htm.


Appendix A: Related Collections

Listed below are screwworm related manuscript collections housed in Special Collections, National Agricultural Library as of June 2007:

Artifacts: Screwworm Eradication Program Records. Manuscript Collection 348.

Audiovisual Materials: Screwworm Eradication Program Records. Manuscript Collection 215.

Baumhover, Alfred H., Papers: Screwworm Eradication Program Records. Manuscript Collection 266.

Graham, Owen Hugh, Papers: Screwworm Eradication Program Records. Manuscript Collection 213.

Husman, Chester N., Awards: Screwworm Eradication Program Records. Manuscript Collection 349.

International Collection: Screwworm Eradication Program Records. Manuscript Collection 355.

Knipling, Edward Fred, Papers: Screwworm Eradication Program Records. Manuscript Collection 210.

Oral Histories: Screwworm Eradication Program Records. Manuscript Collection 305.

Promotional Materials: Screwworm Eradication Program Records. Manuscript Collection 214.

Severn Run's Cazador (Caz), Screwworm Detection Dog, Collection: Screwworm Eradication Program Records. Manuscript Collection 310.

Southeastern United States Collection: Screwworm Eradication Program Records. Manuscript Collection 212.

Southwestern United States and Mexico Collection: Screwworm Eradication Program Records. Manuscript Collection 211.

USDA Entomology Research Division Records. Manuscript Collection 237.

Wyss, John, Papers: Screwworm Eradication Program Records. Manuscript Collection 338.