Notions Élémentaires de Botanique, avec l'explication d'une carte composée pour servir aux cours publics de L'Académie de Dijon

Notions Élémentaires de Botanique by Jean Francois Durande (1782)

by Jean Francois Durande (1782)
Published in Dijon, France by L.N. Frantin



Durande intro text

The National Agricultural Library is pleased to present this rare botanical work of nomenclatural importance in its entirety. The copy, reproduced here in electronic format, is part of the rare book collection at the National Agricultural Library. Durande's work was used as a textbook in botanical courses that he taught in Dijon. It summarized the botanical knowledge of Durande's time and compared the predominant plant classification systems. As such an important botanical work, it was included in Stafleu & Cowan's selective guide to botanical publications, Taxonomic Literature (2nd Edition), published in 1976.

In order to gain a greater understanding of this seminal botanical volume, Dr. James L. Reveal, Professor Emeritus of Botany at the University of Maryland, has provided introductory remarks and other resources, which are linked below.


Disclaimer

Special Collections of the National Agricultural Library (NAL) acquires, arranges, describes, preserves and makes available rare materials significant to the history of agriculture. Materials are obtained through donation or active collection in accordance with the established Special Collections collection development policy. Special Collections staff organize and describe materials according to archival principles and create descriptions and indexes to enhance access. Staff do not edit or otherwise modify the original materials. The views expressed in the collections do not necessarily reflect the policies of the National Agricultural Library or the United States Department of Agriculture.


Introduction to Francois Durande's Notions Élémentaires de Botanique

Written by Dr. James Reveal, Professor Emeritus of Botany at the University of Maryland

Jean François Durande (1732-1794), a French botanist at Dijon, published a botany textbook entitled Notions Élémentaires de Botanique in 1782. The work is not common and little is known of the author except that he was a teacher and obviously required a textbook. At the time, he was actively engaged in publishing a flora, Flore de Bourgogne (Durande 1782), on the area where he taught, so it is likely the two books were to be the backbones for his course. Durande produced no other works in botany.

In his textbook, Durande attempted to summarize the state of knowledge in botany, and especially the classification of plants. He reviewed in detail the systems proposed by his countryman, Joseph Pitton de Tournefort (1656-1708); the Swedish naturalist, Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778); and his contemporary at the Museum d'Histoire naturalle in Paris, Antoine Laurent de Jussieu (1748-1836). While the works of the first two had been published and were available in book form, that of Jussieu's was not yet available in print. Each of these men had proposed a system for the classification of plants as was then understood (algae, fungi, mosses and bryophytes, fern and fern-allies, gymnosperms and angiosperms) and Durande paid particular attention to how each arranged their plants into groups.

As in any work of this nature, Durande began by reviewing the terminology (pages 13-149), and then briefly discussed when many of the local wildflowers bloomed (pages 149-155). This was followed by a slightly longer unit on the local cultivation of plants from different parts of the world (pages 155-182). The terminology section was especially detailed, providing a multitude of terms, definitions and examples. To a significant degree, this was an important summation of this type of information, and nothing quite like this would appear in a textbook until John Lindley (1799-1865) published the Vegetable Kingdom in 1846. Earlier efforts at the same kind of text, notably those by Benjamin Smith Barton (1766-1815) who published Elements of Botany (1803) and Thomas Nuttall (1786-1859) who wrote An Introduction to Systematic and Physiological Botany (1827), covered some of the same information but not in the detail that both Durande and Lindley provided.

The largest section of the book was devoted to an analysis of the various systems of classification then available to classify and identify plants (pages 182-301). This "methode botanique" or "methodus plantarum" was a combination of an arrangement of plants into groups, features by which the groups could be distinguished, and a name for almost all of the groups. In the 1780s, two general methods prevailed, the established "artificial method" of ordering plants into pre-established groups based on the number, state, and position of stamens and ovaries championed by Linnaeus, and the newer idea of a "natural method" then being promulgated by Jussieu.

The Linnaean method was firmly established in the Scandinavian countries, England, and much of Europe . Linnaeus had first articulated his method of assigning genera of plants to numerically pre-determined groups in 1735, and used the method to arrange genera from then on. He differed from Tournefort in his arrangement of genera in that Linnaeus emphasized reproductive features whereas Tournefort emphasized the entire flower. In 1763, Michel Adanson (1727-1806) altered this considerably by championing the notion that not only the comparative features of flowers should be used but also fruits and to some degree the nature of the whole plant should be considered when evaluating relationships. Furthermore, unlike Tournefort and Linnaeus, Adanson suggested that genera could be arranged into natural groups, families, which more accurately reflected what was seen in Nature.

Adanson in his book, Families des Plantes (1763), arranged his genera into families, a view Linnaeus and others considered worthy but far too difficult to do given the state of knowledge about plants then in a rapidly explored world. The beauty of Linnaeus' artificial method was that by simply counting certain parts one could determine a small group. Then by reading brief diagnostic statements regarding the critical characters of each genus in the group, one could quickly ascertain either the identity of the genus or realize a new genus had been found. Trying to ascertain a family grouping required considerable a priori knowledge of each of the families-often based on experience-as the entire concept of diagnostic features given in opposing statements of keys was yet to even be formulated.

At the time Durande was preparing his textbook, the artificial and natural methods were both in use, and members of the Jussieu family were heavily promoting the latter in France . It is not surprising that Durande would devote much of his book to a comparison and evaluation of the two schools of classification. He detailed the Linnaean view under the heading "Méthode du Cher. Linné" (pages 228-240) and then Jussieu's under the heading "Familles naturelles. Systême de M. de Jussieu" (pages 240-301). Durande expressed considerable dissatisfaction with the Linnaean arrangement of genera as they were generally understood, and in a concluding chapter (Explication de la Carte de Botanique, pages 302-368) he reorganized Linnaeus' classes. In doing so, he attempted to make the artificial group of Linnaeus (termed classes) more like those of Jussieu's natural families, often assigning each a name similar to those adopted for families.

Some of the Linnaean classes were so artificial that they were difficult to convert into more natural groups. In most instances, Durande established informal subdivisions within the class and it was to these subdivisions that he assigned family-like names in French. For example, Classe I does not have a unifying name but was subdivided into "sections" and "divisions" such as "Gentianes," "Lyserons," "Bourraches," "Campanule." When disparate elements were included, he typically indicated which natural family the elements were to be assigned. In other instances, for example in Classe II, he indicated that the group was comparable to the "Personnées." Therefore, what Durande did was to attempt to modernize the Linnaean system as much as he could while retaining the traditional flavor of Linnaeus' artificial method of arranging plants into small groups. All in all, Durande recognized seventeen classes, assigning fifteen of them formal names in French.

The last chapter in Durande's book dealt with "Propriétés des Plantes." Here one finds discussions on the uses and medicinal aspects of plants. In this section, Durande used a combination of the class, division and section names he outlined in his previous chapter. No doubt this section of the book was intended to be a focal point for his course which likely contained many students interested in pursuing careers in medicine.

Several important tables complete the textbook. Unlike the previous sections, this next section was numbered with lower-case Roman numerals. The tables may be looked upon as appendices although not called such. The first is entitled "Table alphabétique des genres, avec l'indication de leurs Familles, Classes, Sections & Divisions, suivant les systémes des corolles & des étamines." Here one finds a full listing of genera followed by the name of the natural family that the genus belonged to, followed by references, by number and letter, to the class, section and division proposed by Durande, and then finally the placement of the genus in Linnaeus' Genera Plantarum . The family names are given in French, and numerous genera are not placed in any family.

The next three appendices deal with terminology. The first (Dénominations Françoises rapportées à leurs genres, leurs especes") gives the French common names for genera and species. This would be particularly useful to the student in associating local names to scientific names. The last two appendices may be regarded as indexes for the text itself. The first is French botanical terms ("Table des termes botaniques François") and the second is Latin botanical terms ("Table des termes botaniques Latins"). In both cases, the appropriate page numbers are given. In the latter case, Durande listed the various family names he used in Latin.

After an errata page, there is a statement entitled "Privilege du Roi" that granted Durande permission to publish his two books. Permission was granted on 8 Feb 1782 . Notions Élémentaires de Botanique was published sometime between February and the end of August in 1782. His companion work, Flore de Bourgogne, appeared as two volumes apparently in late 1782.


Significance of Notions Élémentaires de Botanique on modern nomenclature

Written by Dr. James Reveal, Professor Emeritus of Botany at the University of Maryland

Modern-day interest in Durande's book stems from the fact that he validated many scientific names of plants, especially flowering plants, at the rank of family before any other botanist. Starting in the late 1950s, it became traditional for those involved with the naming of plants to informally consider that Antoine Jussieu, in 1789, was the first to publish all of the important family names. These important family names were protected against all other earlier names and listed in an appendix of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (see App. IIB, Greuter et al. 2000). The rules then as now clearly stated that one could conserve a name (e.g., mandate its use over other names for the same group of plants), but one could not "conserve" its authorship or its place of publication. In short, what was being done informally was not sanctioned by the rules themselves and in truth this protective status of the bibliographic reference of the conserved family names was patently prohibited. This realization came to the forefront in 1999 and the practice ended with the St. Louis Code.

The pre-1789 literature on family names was considered to be difficult. The work by Adanson was well known. However, most of the early works were either unpublished or improperly presented according to our modern rules. For example the system of Bernard de Jussieu's (1699-1777) - Antoine's uncle and mentor - was never published by him. His system was summarized twice before Antoine Jussieu presented it in outline in 1789 (Guédès 1973). The two summaries were by Antoine Nicolas Duchesne (1747-1827) and J. P. Buisson, a "démonstrateur" at the Collège de Pharmacie in Paris of whom nothing else is known. However, neither the Duchesne (1764) nor Buisson (1779) scientific names were validly published according to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Greuter et al. 2000). Either their names lacked descriptions (in violation of Art. 32.1(c)) or they were terminated by endings in French rather than Latin (contrary to Art. 18.4). When Durande published in 1782, he concentrated on the newly revised system outlined at the Jardin du Roi by the younger Jussieu and when he published he provided each of his families with a description and a name in Latin.

In Durande's work, he devised his own artificial system that contained many classes, sections and divisions that closely resembled "natural" families. He then adopted this artificial system in his Flore de Bourgogne (1782). In summarizing what Jussieu had done regarding a natural system of classification, Durande formulated families based in part of an earlier paper by Jussieu (1774) and what he learned from the garden. To what extent, if any, Jussieu provided Durande with specific information is unknown. In comparing the information in Durande's Notions and Jussieu's (1789) Genera Plantarum, it is clear, as Guédès (1973) noted, that Durande wrote the entire section wherein he discussed Jussieu's system and compared it to the others, including his own artificial system. In his book, Durande devoted some 50 pages to the Jussieu system, providing detailed descriptions (in French) of the families. Because he used Latin names for his natural families and French descriptions combined with the effective publication of his book, Durande was able to fulfill the requirements for valid publication as mandated by the Code.

In recent months, some have suggested that the family names published by Durande were not validly published because he did not accept them (Turlane & Barrie 2001; but see Reveal 2001). It was not uncommon well into the latter part of the nineteenth century for workers to have both natural and artificial systems of classification in a single work. The examples are numerous, especially those published by German and Swedish authors (e.g., Sprengel 1824-1828; Fries 1835-1837). The question is not, therefore, what is the situation when one uses both types of systems of classification, but rather is there a specific declaration by Durande wherein he pointedly rejected the names he proposed in his chapter on a natural method of classification? As none exists, the Durande names are valid and must be accepted.

Durande was writing a textbook. He was summarizing the status of his understanding of plant classification. He acknowledged that there were two competing points of view - one natural and one artificial - and both required improvement. Therefore, he published a new, natural system based on the more recent views of Antonie Jussieu and at the same time he improved Tournefort's and Linnaeus' artificial system of classification by circumscribing their more traditional yet artificial groups so that they were more akin to natural families. In short, he expressed opinions on, and strove for improvements of, both methods. He does not reject his natural system of classification anywhere his textbook.

By making this book available online, the National Agricultural Library is providing open access to this rare work so that others may evaluate the efforts of Durande in light of our modern rules of botanical nomenclature. Because many important family names were first published in this work it is doubly important that the work should be widely available.


Families mentioned in Durande's evaluation of Jussieu's system

Written by Dr. James Reveal, Professor Emeritus of Botany at the University of Maryland

Arranged Alphabetically
Family Page Number
Fungi 248
Algae 249
Musci 249
Naiades 250
Parasiticae 251
Filices 252
Palmae 252
Gramina 253
Typhae 254
Zanichelliae 254
Aroideae 254
Junci 255
Lilia 256
Narcissi 256
Irides 257
Musae 257
Cannae 258
Orchides 258
Aristolochiae 259
Eleagni 259
Thymeleae 259
Sanguisorbae 260
Herniariae 260
Polygoneae 260
Basellae 261
Atriplices 261
Phytolaccae 261
Jalappae 262
Amaranthi 262
Plantagines 262
Plumbagines 263
Lysimachiae 264
Veronicae 264
Acanthi 265
Bignoniae 265
Scrophulariae 265
Solaneae 266
Jasmina 266
Verbenae 266
Labiatae 267
Borragineae 267
Convolvuli 268
Gentianae 268
Apocina 268
Sapotae 269
Diospyri 270
Ericae 270
Kalmiae 271
Cucurbitaceae 271
Campanulae 272
Chicoraceae 272
Cinarocephalae 273
Corymbiferae 273
Dipsaceae 274
Rubiaceae 274
Caprifolia 275
Araliae 275
Umbelliferae 276
Ranunculi 276
Papaveraceae 277
Cruciferae 278
Capparides 278
Paulliniae 279
Malpighia 280
Vites 280
Gerania 281
Malvae 281
Hermanniae 282
Tiliae 282
Anonae 283
Lauri 283
Berberides 283
Rutae 284
Cisti 284
Hyperica 285
Cariophylleae 285
Semperviva 286
Saxifragae 287
Cacti 287
Onagrae 287
Myrti 288
Salicariae 288
Rosaceae 289
Rhamni 289
Leguminosa 290
Aurantia 291
Aceres 291
Terebenthi 292
Amentaceae 293
Urticae 293
Euphorbes 294
Coniferae 295
Arranged Alphabetically
Family Page Number
Acanthi 265
Aceres 291
Algae 249
Amaranthi 262
Amentaceae 293
Anonae 283
Apocina 268
Araliae 275
Aristolochiae 259
Aroideae 254
Atriplices 261
Aurantia 291
Basellae 261
Berberides 283
Bignoniae 265
Borragineae 267
Cacti 287
Campanulae 272
Cannae 258
Capparides 278
Caprifolia 275
Cariophylleae 285
Chicoraceae 272
Cinarocephalae 273
Cisti 284
Coniferae 295
Convolvuli 268
Corymbiferae 273
Cruciferae 278
Cucurbitaceae 271
Diospyri 270
Dipsaceae 274
Eleagni 259
Ericae 270
Euphorbes 294
Filices 252
Fungi 248
Gentianae 268
Gerania 281
Gramina 253
Hermanniae 282
Herniariae 260
Hyperica 285
Irides 257
Jalappae 262
Jasmina 266
Junci 255
Kalmiae 271
Labiatae 267
Lauri 283
Leguminosa 290
Lilia 256
Lysimachiae 264
Malpighia 280
Malvae 281
Musae 257
Musci 249
Myrti 288
Naiades 250
Narcissi 256
Onagrae 287
Orchides 258
Palmae 252
Papaveraceae 277
Parasiticae 251
Paulliniae 279
Phytolaccae 261
Plantagines 262
Plumbagines 263
Polygoneae 260
Ranunculi 276
Rhamni 289
Rosaceae 289
Rubiaceae 274
Rutae 284
Salicariae 288
Sanguisorbae 260
Sapotae 269
Saxifragae 287
Scrophulariae 265
Semperviva 286
Solaneae 266
Terebenthi 292
Thymeleae 259
Tiliae 282
Typhae 254
Umbelliferae 276
Urticae 293
Verbenae 266
Veronicae 264
Vites 280
Zanichelliae 254

Classes of Durande modified Linnaean system

Written by Dr. James Reveal, Professor Emeritus of Botany at the University of Maryland

Classes Page Numbers
Classe I. Unnamed 310
Classe II. Personnées 315
Classe III. Labiées 316
Classe IV. Composées 316
Classe V. Aggrégées 318
Classe VI. Malvacées 319
Classe VII. Cruciformes 320
Classe VIII, Rosacées 321
Classe IX. Ranonculées 322
Classe X. Caryophyllées 323
Classe XI. Ombelliferes 324
Classe XII. Léguminiuses 326
Classe XIII. Liliacées 327
Classe XIV. Spadicées 328
Classe XV. Staminées 329
Classe XVI. Graminées 330
Classe XVII. Unnamed [cryptogames] 332

List of vascular plant family names with correct orthography and bibliographic information

Written by Dr. James Reveal, Professor Emeritus of Botany at the University of Maryland

Note: Durande mentioned all of the names listed below in 1782. Aside from the 34 Adanson names validated in 1763, only one other name was published before Durande (see Euphorbiaceae). Of the 55 names of vascular plant families named by Durande, four are now inadmissible by our modern rules (Amentaceae, Coniferae, Corymbiferae and Parasiticae) and one (Terebinthaceae) is illegitimate. He adopted two other illegitimate names proposed by Adanson. Altogether, Durande was the first to validate 37 conserved family names. Adanson proposed 35 family names that are now conserved. Thus out of some 455 conserved names, Adanson and Durande proposed some 15% of the total. Finally, of the non-conserved names proposed by Durande, only one (Veronicaceae) is occasionally found in use today.

Acanthaceae Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 265. Feb-Aug 1782 (Acanthi), nom. cons.

Aceraceae Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 291. Feb-Aug 1782 (Aceres), nom. cons.

Amaranthaceae Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 266. Jul-Aug 1763 (Amaranthi), nom. cons.

Amentaceae Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 293. Feb-Aug 1782, nom. inadmiss.

Annonaceae Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 359. Jul-Aug 1763 (Anonae), nom. cons.

Apocynaceae Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 167. Jul-Aug 1763 (Apocineae), nom. cons.

Araceae Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 461. Jul-Aug 1763 (Aroideae), nom. cons.

Araliaceae Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 275. Feb-Aug 1782 (Araliae), nom. cons.

Aristolochiaceae Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 71. Jul-Aug 1763 (Aristolochiae), nom. cons.

Atriplicaceae Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 261. Feb-Aug 1782 (Atriplices).

Aurantiaceae Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 291. Feb-Aug 1782 (Aurantia).

Basellaceae Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 261. Feb-Aug 1782 (Basellae), nom. cons.

Berberidaceae Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 283. Feb-Aug 1782 (Berberides), nom. cons.

Bignoniaceae Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 265. Feb-Aug 1782 (Bignonia), nom. cons.

Boraginaceae Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 173. Jul-Aug 1763 (Borragines), nom. cons.

Cactaceae Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 287. Feb-Aug 1782 (Cacti), nom. cons.

Campanulaceae Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 132. Jul-Aug 1763, nom. cons.

Cannaceae Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 258. Feb-Aug 1782 ( Cannae ), nom. cons.

Capparaceae Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 402. Jul-Aug 1763 (Capparides), nom. cons.

Caprifoliaceae Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 153. Jul-Aug 1763 (Caprifolia), nom. cons.

Caryophyllaceae Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 285. Feb-Aug 1782 (Caryophyllae), nom. cons.

Cichoriaceae Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 272. Feb-Aug 1782 (Chichoraceae), nom. cons.

Cinarocephalae - see Cynaraceae.

Cistaceae Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 434. Jul-Aug 1763 (Cisti), nom. cons.

Coniferae Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 295. Feb-Aug 1782, nom. inadmiss.

Convolvulaceae Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 268. Feb-Aug 1782 (Convolvuli), nom. cons.

Corymbiferae Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 273. Feb-Aug 1782, nom. inadmiss.

Cruciferae Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 409. Jul-Aug 1763, nom. cons. et nom. alt.

Cucurbitaceae Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 271. Feb-Aug 1782, nom. cons.

Cynaraceae Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 273. Feb-Aug 1782 (Cinarocephalae).

Diospyraceae Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 270. Feb-Aug 1782 (Diospyri).

Dipsacaceae Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 274. Feb-Aug 1782 (Dipsaceae), nom. cons.

Elaeagnaceae Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 77. Jul-Aug 1763 (Elaeagni), nom. cons.

Ericaceae Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 270. Feb-Aug 1782 (Ericae), nom. cons.

Euphorbiaceae J.F. Gmel., Allg. Gesch. Pflanzengifte: 23, 119. 1777 (Euphorbiae), nom. cons.

Filicaceae Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 77. Jul-Aug 1763 (Filices), nom. illeg.

Gentianaceae Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 268. Feb-Aug 1782 (Gentianae), nom. cons.

Geraniaceae Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 384. Jul-Aug 1763 (Gerania), nom. cons.

Gramineae Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 26. Jul-Aug 1763 (Gramina), nom. cons. et nom. alt.

Hermanniaceae Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 282. Feb-Aug 1782 (Hermanniae).

Herniariaceae Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 260. Feb-Aug 1782 (Herniariae).

Hypericaceae Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 285. Feb-Aug 1782 (Hyperica), nom. cons.

Iridaceae Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 257. Feb-Aug 1782 (Irides), nom. cons.

Jalapaceae Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 263. Jul-Aug 1763 (Jalapae) , nom. illeg.

Jasminaceae Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 220. Jul-Aug 1763 (Jasmina).

Juncaceae Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 255. Feb-Aug 1782 (Junci), nom. cons.

Kalmiaceae Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 271. Feb-Aug 1782 (Kalmiae).

Labiatae Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 180. Jul-Aug 1763, nom. cons. et nom. alt.

Lauraceae Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 283. Feb-Aug 1782 (Lauri), nom. cons.

Leguminosae Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 306. Jul-Aug 1763, nom. cons. et nom. alt.

Liliaceae Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 42. Jul-Aug 1763, nom. cons.

Lysimachiaceae Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 264. Feb-Aug 1782 (Lysimachies).

Malpighiaceae Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 280. Feb-Aug 1782 (Malpighiae), nom. cons.

Malvaceae Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 390. Jul-Aug 1763 (Malvae), nom. cons.

Musaceae Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 257. Feb-Aug 1782 (Musae), nom. cons.

Myrtaceae Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 86. Jul-Aug 1763 (Myrti), nom. cons.

Najadaceae Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 250. Feb-Aug 1782 (Naiades), nom. cons.

Narcissaceae Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 256. Feb-Aug 1782 (Narcissi).

Onagraceae Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 81. Jul-Aug 1763 (Onagrae), nom. cons.

Orchidaceae Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 68. Jul-Aug 1763 (Orchideae), nom. cons.

Palmae Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 22. Jul-Aug 1763, nom. cons. et nom. alt.

Papaveraceae Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 425. Jul-Aug 1763, nom. cons.

Parasiticae Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 251. Feb-Aug 1782, nom. inadmiss.

Paulliniaceae Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 279. Feb-Aug 1782 (Paulliniae).

Phytolaccaceae Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 261. Feb-Aug 1782 (Phytolaceae), nom. cons.

Plantaginaceae Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 262. Feb-Aug 1782 (Plantagines), nom. cons.

Plumbaginaceae Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 263. Feb-Aug 1782 (Plumbagines), nom. cons.

Polygonaceae Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 260. Feb-Aug 1782 (Polygoneae), nom. cons.

Ranunculaceae Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 451. Jul-Aug 1763 (Ranunculi), nom. cons.

Rhamnaceae Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 289. Feb-Aug 1782 (Rhamni), nom. cons.

Rosaceae Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 286. Jul-Aug 1763 (Rosae), nom. cons.

Rubiaceae Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 274. Feb-Aug 1782, nom. cons.

Rutaceae Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 284. Feb-Aug 1782 (Rutae), nom. cons.

Sanguisorbaceae Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 260. Feb-Aug 1782 (Sanguisorbeae).

Sapotaceae Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 269. Feb-Aug 1782 (Sapotae), nom. cons.

Saxifragaceae Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 287. Feb-Aug 1782 (Saxifragae), nom. cons.

Scrophulariaceae Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 265. Feb-Aug 1782 (Scrophulariae), nom. cons.

Sempervivaceae Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 286. Feb-Aug 1782 (Semperviva).

Solanaceae Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 215. Jul-Aug 1763 (Solana), nom. cons.

Terebinthaceae Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 292. Feb-Aug 1782 (Terebenthi), nom. illeg.

Thymelaeaceae Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 278. Jul-Aug 1763 (Thymelaeae), nom. cons.

Tiliaceae Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 378. Jul-Aug 1763 (Tiliae), nom. cons.

Typhaceae Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 254. Feb-Aug 1782 (Typhae), nom. cons.

Umbelliferae Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 276. Feb-Aug 1782, nom. cons. et nom. alt.

Urticaceae Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 293. Feb-Aug 1782 (Urticae), nom. cons.

Verbenaceae Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 195. Jul-Aug 1763, nom. cons.

Veronicaceae Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 264. Feb-Aug 1782 (Veronicae).

Vitaceae Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 280. Feb-Aug 1782 (Vites), nom. cons.

Zannichelliaceae Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 254. Feb-Aug 1782 (Zanichelliae), nom. cons.


Literature Cited

Written by Dr. James Reveal, Professor Emeritus of Botany at the University of Maryland

Adanson, M. 1763. Familles des plantes. Vol. 2. Paris.

Barton, B. S. 1803. Elements of botany: or outlines of the natural history of vegetables. Philadelphia.

Buisson, J. P. 1779. Classes et noms des plantes. Paris

Duchesne, A. N. 1764. Manuel de botanique, contenant les propriétés des plantes. Paris.

Durande, J. F. 1782. Notions élémentaires de botanique. Dijon.

Durande, J.F. 1782. Flore de Bourgogne. 2 vols. Dijon.

Fries, E. M. 1835-1837. Corpus florarum provincialium Sueciae. I. Floram scanicam. Uppsala.

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