Oral Histories: Screwworm Eradication Program Records

Disclaimer

Special Collections of the National Agricultural Library (NAL) acquires, arranges, describes, preserves and makes available rare materials significant to the history of agriculture. Materials are obtained through donation or active collection in accordance with the established Special Collections collection development policy. Special Collections staff organize and describe materials according to archival principles and create descriptions and indexes to enhance access. Staff do not edit or otherwise modify the original materials. The views expressed in the collections do not necessarily reflect the policies of the National Agricultural Library or the United States Department of Agriculture.


Oral Histories: Screwworm Eradication Program Records Introduction

The materials included in the Oral Histories: Screwworm Eradication Program Records were produced by the National Agricultural Library to document the experiences of several key figures involved in Screwworm Eradication Program. Interviews were conducted between 2000-2004 by Paul (Tommy) Stanford, Larry Quinn, and project manager, Lynn Stewart. Stewart was also responsible for the organization of the materials and videotaping. The oral history project materials span the years 2000 to 2004 and are contained in 28 boxes, covering 19 linear feet. The collection is in good condition. All materials in Series I (Oral History Videocassettes) are restricted from use except the VHS viewing copies (Series I.D.). The collection was arranged and described in 2005 and 2006 by Lindsey Loeper, a graduate assistant from the University of Maryland College Park, College of Information Studies.


Biographical Sketch

Baumhover, Alfred H.
Interviewed by Lynn Stewart on December 21, 2001 at the National Agricultural Library, Beltsville, Maryland.

Alfred H. Baumhover (1921- ) began working towards eradicating screwworm populations with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) in the early 1950s in Kerrville, Texas. He worked with Edward Fred Knipling and Raymond C. Bushland, two of the founding scientists of the screwworm program. Baumhover was involved in the original tests for the Southeast Screwworm Eradication Program in Florida and later in Curacao, Netherlands Antilles. Baumhover worked at the Mission, Texas, plant and he discusses the varied research that was performed there.

Baumhover gives an in-depth description of the evolving development of the screwworm program, including the motivations behind the expansion to Mexico, Panama, and Puerto Rico. He discusses the problems in moving the program to Puerto Rico, and changes that had to be made to accommodate the differences in delivery and breed of fly. Baumhover retired from the program in 1984 but has remained active in some capacity; he gives his opinions on the future of the program including the proposed expansion to South America.

Bruce, Jimmy Carl
Interviewed by Paul T.(Tommy) Stanford on November 5, 2001 at Moore Air Base in Mission, Texas.

Jimmy Carl Bruce has extensive experience in many different areas of screwworm production in several of the plants, including Mission, Texas, as well as Tuxtla Gutierrez, Tampico, and Guadalajara, Mexico. Bruce was involved in the development of feeding systems in Mission, the development of the gel diet in Tampico, Mexico, and packaging and dispersal systems in Guadalajara, Mexico. He helped implement the chilled fly dispersal system developed by Jerry Hoffman. He conducted several strain evaluations, including a faulty strain called V81.

Bruce provides extensive detail on production development, working conditions, employees, and organizational structure. Bruce worked in many of the locations throughout Mexico and Texas with many important screwworm workers, and he experienced many changes implemented throughout several departments.

Charpentier, Henri C.
Interviewed by Lynn Stewart on August 30, 2002 in Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, Mexico.

Henri C. Charpentier (1938- ) began working for the Screwworm Eradication Program in 1972 at the plant in Mission, Texas. He developed the boxed method for the bulk shipment of pupae and helped design the Tuxtla Gutierrez, Mexico, plant including site selection and building plans. He describes in detail the construction of the site as well as certain building features specific to the production of the flies. Charpentier provides a detailed description of the water filtration and waste management systems. He talks about how the temperature and humidity are regulated within the plant, and what effect this has on the fly production.

Charpentier gives an extremely detailed explanation of the production process in the plant, including the different stages (egging, knock down, wash up, diet, starting rooms), the machines and procedures used in each stage, and the changes over the years. Charpentier was involved in the development and implementation of many new procedures that increased productivity and safety in the plant. He was also involved in the expansion to Panama and he discusses the hurdles that will be faced when and if the program moves to South America.

Chaudhury, Muhammed F. B.
Interviewed by Lynn Stewart on August 29, 2002 in Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, Mexico.

Muhammed F.B. Chaudhury (1937- ) was born in India, educated in Pakistan, and came to the United States with a Fulbright Scholarship to study entomology. He studied insect sterilization through the USDA while in Iowa. His projects included the identification of sex pheromones in the face fly and western corn rootworm beetle. He worked in Kenya at the International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology on tsetse fly research, including the development of easy-to-use traps.

Chaudhury joined the Screwworm Eradication Program in Tuxtla Gutierrez, Mexico, in the 1990s to develop an alternative diet, which came to be known as the paper diet. He describes in detail his process in developing this alternative process and the testing that was involved. He explains the motivation behind the development of the paper diet versus the previous gel diet, and explains the effect the switch has had on plant operations.

De la Garza, Kika
Interviewed by Paul T. (Tommy) Stanford on November 5, 2001 at Moore Air Base in Mission, Texas.

Eligio "Kika" de la Garza (1927- ) served six terms in the state legislature of Texas and 32 years in Congress as a Texas representative. He served the Mission, Texas, area and was involved in securing funding for the Screwworm Eradication Program. He served on the Agricultural Committee in Congress and later became the committee chairman. De la Garza discusses the many groups involved in the Screwworm Eradication Program, including the Southwest Animal Health Research Foundation (SWAHRF) and the Texas Cattlemen's Association. De la Garza discusses the relationship between the United States and Mexico, as well as the involvement with the Libyan government and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in eradicating the screwworm in Libya.

De la Garza was closely associated with the plant in Mission, Texas, because he served the area for such a long duration. His father also worked in the plant for 20 years. De la Garza discusses the involvement of several federal employees in the eradication program, including Chandler James Whitten, Orville Freeman, and President Lyndon Baines Johnson. He also discusses the differences in the organization of power among U.S and Mexican statesmen.

Graham, Owen Hugh
Interviewed by Lynn Stewart on November 8, 2001 at the Knipling-Bushland U.S. Livestock Insects Research Laboratory in Kerrville, Texas.

Owen Hugh Graham (1917- ) was an entomologist who worked for the Screwworm Eradication Program in Menard, Kerrville, and Mission, Texas, as well as Tuxtla Gutierrez, Mexico, where he was the head of the laboratory before his 1984 retirement. Graham served in the Army during World War II in the Fifth Malaria Survey Unit. He worked on the development and implementation of Smear 62 and EQ-335, chemical treatments used to kill screwworm infections, and later coumaphos, a preventative treatment.

In his interview, Graham discusses the development of larger, more centralized USDA laboratories, such as the one in Kerrville, Texas, and how the organization has changed over the years. He discusses the Florida screwworm eradication and how this inspired Texas cattlemen to organize with the Southwest Animal Health Research Foundation (SWAHRF) to develop a program in Texas, and later in Mexico. Graham was involved in the study of screwworm ecology, genetics, and movement.

Hauschild, Edward "Tony"
Interviewed by Lynn Stewart on November 9, 2001 at the Knipling-Bushland U.S. Livestock Insects Research Laboratory in Kerrville, Texas.

Edward "Tony" Hauschild (1945- ) worked primarily with the airplane dispersal and transportation of flies throughout Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize. He began working for the USDA and the Screwworm Eradication Program in 1976. He arrived in Tuxtla Gutierrez, Mexico, in September of 1976 and over the next 22 years he was stationed out of Hermosillo, Sonora, Culiacan, Sinaloa, and Veracruz, Mexico, and enjoyed a second stay in Tuxtla Gutierrez, Mexico, from 1984-1998. Hauschild served as a plane technician, a technical representative, a chase pilot, a supervisor, and later the chief of air operations.

In addition to the detailed descriptions of his work duties, the dispersal process, and how the flies were shipped, Hauschild describes the various locations were he worked. Hauschild includes descriptions of Jalapan, Ocozocuautla, Coatzacoalcos, Tehuacan, Tampico, the Yucatan Peninsula, and the Isthumus of Tehuantepec, all of which are located in Mexico. Hauschild describes the international expansion of the program. He talks in detail about his appreciation of Mexican culture.

Knipling, Edward Fred
Interviewed by Paul T. (Tommy) Stanford on January 21, 2000 and by Larry Quinn on March 9, 2000 at Knipling's home in Arlington, Virginia.

Edward Fred Knipling (1909-2000) began working for the USDA in 1930. His early work included being stationed at the Menard, Texas, research center with E.W. Laake developing screwworm treatments ("smears") for animal wounds. Knipling developed the sterile insect technique by combining the sterilization research of Hermann Joseph Muller and the research of his colleagues, Roy C. Melvin and Raymond C. Bushland, on artificial production and mass rearing of screwworms. Knipling later worked on parasitoid augmentation technique, virus distribution, insecticide development, and integrated pest management systems on the boll weevil and other pests. Knipling served as the director of entomology research at the USDA before moving to the position of science advisor to the director of the Agricultural Research Service. He received many honors, including the World Food Prize in 1992.

Knipling explains why he decided to become an entomologist. Knipling discusses in detail the research involved in developing and implementing the sterile insect technique. He describes the experiments on the islands of Sanibel, Florida, and Curacao, Netherlands Antilles, and how these experiments led to the screwworm eradication on mainland Florida. Knipling discusses how the program spread across the United States and the problems they encountered with sustaining the eradication. He describes the outbreak in 1972 that prompted the expansion of the program to Mexico in order to enforce a "continuous sterile barrier."

Munoz, Santana and Manuel Ortega
Interviewed by Paul T. (Tommy) Stanford on November 5, 2001 at Moore Air Base in Mission, Texas.

Santana Munoz (1936- ) and Manuel Ortega (1935- ) followed similar paths within the Screwworm Eradication Program, transferring from Kerrville, Texas, to Mission, Texas, and from there to Tuxtla Gutierrez, Mexico, at the same time. Both men started as workers and advanced to foremen, and later served as supervisors in Tuxtla Gutierrez, Mexico. They discuss working conditions at the plants, including the power structure, involvement with the worker's "syndicate" or union, problems with superiors, and their roles within the plant.

Both men were trained in many of the departments and they provide a detailed view of how the plant operated. They also discuss the initial opening of the Tuxtla Gutierrez, Mexico, plant and their experience with moving their families to Chiapas, Mexico.

Welch, John Bertram
Interviewed by Lynn Stewart on February 25, 2004 at the National Agricultural Library, Baltsville, Maryland.

John Bertram Welch (1952- ) has been working with screwworm eradication efforts since he became a USDA employee in 1984. Welch has worked in Tuxtla Gutierrez, Mexico, Costa Rico, College Station, Texas, and Panama City, Panama. Welch has served as a research scientist, a research leader, the technical sub director for the U.S.-Mexico Joint Commission for the Eradication of Screwworm in Tuxtla Gutierrez, Mexico, and at the time of this interview was serving as the U.S. director of the U.S.-Mexico Joint Commission.

Welch has been involved in many areas of screwworm research, including the ecology and habitats of screwworms, behavior of larvae in different environments, trapping methods, the development of new screwworm strains, and the increased use of and dependence on satellite technology and sensor imaging for tracking screwworm outbreaks. Welch's most popular experiment was with his dog, Severn Run's Cazador, whom he trained to locate infected animals and screwworm pupae through smell.

Welch discusses both his research and employment history in detail. Another area that is covered in this interview is the role of public education in the eradication program locations. Welch describes various programs that were instituted to ensure that civilians were able to identify screwworms and comply with the necessary control procedures. Severn Run's Cazador and the screwworm program logo, called the "Atomic Fly," were both very important for these efforts and are discussed in detail. Welch describes the coordination between the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) and the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) in several areas of screwworm eradication. Other topics covered include the functional and organizational structure of the U.S.-Mexico Joint Commission, his duties as the technical sub-director of the Commission, the many available technologies used in the eradication program, and the status of the program in Panama and the possible expansion into South America and the Caribbean.

Wendel, Lloyd Eugene
Interviewed by Lynn Stewart on November 6, 2001 at Moore Air Base in Mission, Texas.

Lloyd Eugene Wendel (1945- ) began working as an entomologist for the Screwworm Eradication Program after he completed his Ph.D. His first projects involved the rearing process, improving diet, feeding procedures, and delivery systems. Wendel provides a detailed description of the feeding process and explains the process and purpose of creating new strains of flies.

In addition to explaining his research, Wendel discusses the people with whom he worked and the collaboration among agencies. He stresses how important the cooperation of the ranchers was in identifying the presence of screwworms. He also talks about how altering cultural practices, such as methods of farming and neutering, can improve the rate of eradication of many kinds of pests.

Whitten, Chandler James
Interviewed by Lynn Stewart on December 9, 2001 at the Knipling-Bushland U.S. Livestock Insects Research Laboratory in Kerrville, Texas.

Chandler James Whitten (1939- ) began working at the Mission, Texas, research center in 1974. His primary task was developing strains for use in mass sterile fly releases. Whitten had previous experience with organophosphate resistance. Whitten describes in detail the process of how they conducted genetic analysis of strains, as well as why the development of new strains was important to the project. Whitten's research group worked on the attractant system SWORMLURE and tried to develop a genetic sexing mechanism, which would separate males from female flies and make the sterilization process more effective.

Whitten helped establish a screwworm research lab in Fargo, North Dakota, when the Mission, Texas, plant closed in 1980. He later returned to Tuxtla Gutierrez, Mexico, to continue work on developing strains for the extended Central American eradication in Panama. Whitten discusses the important interactions with ranchers.


Historical Sketch

Below is a timeline of U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) screwworm research highlights.

1858: First reported screwworm cases on Devil's Island, French Guiana

1933: Emory Clayton Cushing and Walter S. Patton recognized screwworm fly as its own species, Cochliomyia hominivorax (different from the blowfly species)

1934: USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) established research station at Valdosta, Georgia (closed 1936) to conduct research on screwworms by scientists Ernest William Laake and Edward Fred Knipling

1935: ARS secured funding for research on screwworms. Raymond C. Bushland began research on artificial diets for rearing screwworms.

1937: Bushland and Knipling are transferred to ARS laboratory in Menard, Texas. Bushland began research on controlling screwworms through chemical means. Knipling began research on sterile male technique, an autocidal theory of total insect population management.

1938: USDA developed Smear 62, an insecticidal wound treatment

1939: Bushland is transferred to Orlando, Florida, to conduct research on mosquito control

1940: Knipling is transferred to Orlando, Florida, to conduct research on insects affecting man

1946: Bushland transferred to ARS laboratory in Kerrville, Texas. Knipling transferred to USDA-ARS headquarters in Washington, D.C.

1950: Arthur W. Lindquist introduced Knipling to Hermann Joseph Muller's research on genetic mutations in fruit flies by radiation. Bushland and Donald E. Hopkins began tests on sterilization of screwworms using radiation.

1951: Alfred H. Baumhover arrived at Kerrville, Texas, to work on screwworm eradication using sterile male technique. Sanibel Island, Florida, was the first field test to use the sterile male technique.

1954: Baumhover traveled to Curacao, Netherlands Antilles, and began successful screwworm eradication campaign using sterile male technique

1955: Baumhover returned to Orlando, Florida, to work on eradication of screwworms from the Southeast United States. Mass rearing techniques were developed.

1955-1957: A mass fly production facility for rearing screwworms is built in Bithlo, Florida. Screwworms successfully eradicated in a 2000 square mile field test area near Orlando, Florida.

1958: ARS built mass fly production facility near Sebring, Florida

1959: Screwworms successfully eradicated from the Southeast United States

1962: ARS Southwest United States screwworm eradication program began with flies produced at the Kerrville, Texas, ARS laboratory. Mass production facility built at Mission, Texas.

1963: ARS developed program specializations. Billy Gene Hightower studied screwworm ecology in Texas. Alfred H. Baumhover studied sterile fly distribution. Leo E. LaChance studied screwworm genetics. Maxwell M. Crystal studied chemosterilants.

1964: Baumhover transferred to Oxford, North Carolina, to work with the Tobacco Insects Investigations

1966: USDA declared screwworms eradicated from Southwest United States, except Texas continued to be infested until 1982. United States and Mexico conducted a feasibility survey for a screwworm eradication program in Mexico, which resulted in the establishment of a screwworm eradication program in Mexico.

1974: The Lincoln-Eden Report, "The Southwestern Screwworm Eradication Program: A Review," is published. Charles G. Lincoln and William Gibbs Eden were tasked with evaluating the Southwestern United States Screwworm Eradication program after poor results spanning 1972-1974. They concluded that the program was a success despite some minor faults and the research should continue.

1977: The ARS Screwworm Research Unit relocated from the Mission, Texas, laboratory to a sterile fly production facility near Tuxtla Gutierrez in Chiapas, Mexico

1984: A new gelled diet is developed by ARS for use in mass rearing screwworms

1990: "Severn Run's Cazador," a German wirehaired pointer, is trained by John Bertram Welch to detect screwworm larvae and screwworm infested animals

1991: Mexico was declared screwworm free

1994: Screwworms eradicated from Belize and Guatemala. Panama City, Republic of Panama, became the headquarters for the USDA-ARS Screwworm Research Unit.

1995: Screwworms eradicated from El Salvador

1996: Screwworms eradicated from Nicaragua

1999: Screwworms eradicated from Honduras

2000: Costa Rica declared screwworm free


Scope and Content Note

The Oral Histories: Screwworm Eradication Program Records is one part of the Screwworm Eradication Program Records, a compilation of personal papers and USDA materials relating to the eradication of screwworms, both domestically and internationally. The collection is composed of 29 boxes, is 19.5 linear feet, and contains 12 oral history interviews. The inclusive dates are 2000-2004 although the materials are predominately from 2001-2002. The dates covered within the interviews begin in the 1930s and continue until the time of the interviews. Oral history interviews were conducted with many prominent screwworm researchers, advocates, and plant workers. Topics include the development of the screwworm program at the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), early testing, the growth and geographical expansion of screwworm eradication, methods of screwworm production and dispersal, and continuing screwworm research. Screwworm programs in the southeastern and western United States, Mexico, Panama, Nicaragua, Puerto Rico, Libya, and Curacao, Netherlands Antilles, are covered.

The implementation of an oral history program began in 1999 with the production of the STOP Screwworms: Selections from the Screwworm Eradication Collection CD-ROM. Following the acquisition of a large collection of screwworm materials, the National Agricultural Library made the decision to produce a public education CD-ROM that would document the screwworm research conducted throughout the USDA, including the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) and the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), in cooperation with other private and international organizations. Lynn Stewart, the project manager, and Susan Fugate, the head of Special Collections at NAL, contacted Edward Fred Knipling for an interview for the CD-ROM. The first oral history interview with Knipling, clips from which are featured in the STOP Screwworms CD-ROM, was conducted on January 21, 2000; a second interview with Knipling took place March 9, 2000.

Using information from Knipling's interview, Stewart was able to compile a list of other influential screwworm eradication program participants and she began planning an expanded oral history collection. The oral history collection was intended to complement and enrich the Screwworm Eradication Program Records, a compilation of manuscript collections that included the personal papers of prominent screwworm entomologists, including Knipling, as well as institutional records from eradication efforts in the southeastern and southwestern United States. Stewart, Paul T. "Tommy" Stanford, and Larry Quinn conducted interviews in Maryland, Texas, and Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, Mexico at the 30th Anniversary of the Mexico-U.S. Commission of the Eradication of Screwworms. With the exception of the two interviews conducted in Mexico, which were recorded on audiocassette tape, all interviews were videotaped with the assistance of a professional recording company.

The variety and depth of screwworm topics covered throughout the oral history interviews are impressive. All areas of the screwworm eradication program are covered. Edward Fred Knipling and Alfred H. Baumhover speak in-depth about the development of the screwworm program from its inception. They both provide detailed explanations of the initial research on the sterile insect technique and the early research done in Florida and Curacao. Knipling and Baumhover each remained very active in the screwworm community after retirement, and so they are able to comment on the program as a whole.

The bulk of interviewees served as entomologists and researchers with the screwworm program, developing new methods of production, sterilization, and dispersal. Researchers include Jimmy Carl Bruce, Henri C. Charpentier, Muhammed F.B. Chaudhury, Owen Hugh Graham, John Bertram Welch, Lloyd Eugene Wendel, and Chandler James Whitten. These researchers contributed to programs in Texas, Mexico, Panama, and the screwworm research laboratory in Fargo, North Dakota. They were involved in all aspects of screwworm research and collectively portray a rich portrait of the development and evolution of the screwworm program.

Most of the researchers worked directly at the screwworm production facilities and their interviews reflect their knowledge of the working operations of the plant. Two other interviews provide further detail. Edward "Tony" Hauschild worked for 22 years with the flight operations that dispersed the screwworm flies in Mexico. His recollections on the flight procedures, and interactions with various Mexican towns, are extremely thorough. Santana Munoz and Manuel Ortega have contributed a joint interview. Both men began working with the screwworm program in Kerrville, Texas, and eventually were promoted to supervisors in Tuxtla Gutierrez, Mexico. Both were trained in nearly all aspects of fly production and they are very familiar with the day-to-day workings of the plant.

Another aspect covered within the oral history interviews is the political process necessary to receive government funding as well as participation and cooperation with several international coalitions. Kika de la Garza served the Mission, Texas, area for six session in the Texas state legislature before moving on to serve in the U.S. Congress for 32 years. In his interview, de la Garza discusses his role in fostering partnerships between the local agricultural and livestock associations and the federal government. De la Garza also worked to ensure the screwworm eradication program was properly funded and he made several trips to Mexico to meet with the international coalition in charge of the Mexican plants.

Further in-depth information on each interview can be found in the Biographical Sketch section (page 2).

One product that resulted from the oral history interviews was a short video produced from interview clips, "Observations of the Eradication of the New World Screwworm," which was completed in August 2002. The video includes clips from interviews with Baumhover, de la Garza, Graham, Knipling, Ortega, Wendel, and Whitten. The video runs for five minutes, 29 seconds, and provides a brief description of the origins and progress of the Screwworm Eradication Program, through the words of the men who made it possible. It is also available in a 90 minute loop. "Observations of the Eradication of the New World Screwworm" is available in VHS and BetacamSP format in Series I.

The series in this collection are arranged by the format of the material. Much of the content is duplicated throughout the collection, although in different audiovisual and textual formats. An interview that is available in Series I (Oral History Videocassettes) is the visual representation of the interview in transcript form in Series III (Transcripts). Material formats include VHS and BetacamSP videocassettes, audiocassettes, printed pages, and digital files. BetacamSP video is a professional quality videocassette format that provides a sharper image then traditional consumer grade VHS.The materials included are all in good condition and working order. Materials within a series are arranged alphabetically by the interviewee's last name.

Series I (Oral History Videocassettes) contains both unedited and edited copies of the oral history interviews. This series is divided into four series to distinguish the raw footage, master, preservation, and viewing copies. Master copies are the original tapes and should be duplicated a minimum number of times to produce preservation copies. The preservation copies are then used to duplicate viewing copies, which are available for use by researchers. If a viewing copy becomes difficult to use because of age or wear, a new copy can be produced from the preservation copy. Master copies should never be used for research purposes or to produce viewing copies. Researchers should use materials from Subseries I.D. (Viewing Copies). Raw footage and master copies are available in VHS and BetacamSP formats; preservation and viewing copies are available in VHS only.

Several interviews are available in audiocassette format, located in Series II (Oral History Audiocassettes). Not all interviews available in Series I (Oral History Videocassettes) are represented here. The transcription service employed to produce interview transcripts often created an audiocassette copy from the video copy supplied to them, so in some cases there is a video and audiocassette version of an interview. The content on both formats is identical. The interviews with Muhammad F.B. Chaudhury and Henri C. Charpentier are available only in the audiocassette format.

Transcripts of the interviews are housed in Series III (Transcripts). The transcripts were created by an external transcription service using video and audiocassettes of the interviews. Special Collections staff have edited the transcripts to ensure the accuracy of the transcription. The editing involved providing properly spelled names of places and people; statements made by interviewees and interviewers were not edited for content or length and the transcripts represent the interview in full.


Series Description

Series I. Oral History Videocassettes. 2000-2004. 26 boxes.

This series contains the original raw footage and edited copies of the oral history interviews. Videocassettes were created in master, preservation, and viewing copies formats. The series is arranged in alphabetical order by the interviewee's last name. Dates accompanying the videocassettes represent the date of the interview. The VHS tapes in Subseries I.D., Viewing Copies, are for researchers.

  • Subseries I.A. Raw Footage Videocassettes. 2000-2004.
  • The Raw Footage Videocassettes subseries contains both BetacamSP (Sub-subseries I.A.1.) and VHS (Sub-subseries 1.A.2.) formats; the content on the tapes in both subseries is identical despite the different formats. The interview footage on these tapes is unedited and in most cases the interview is split up between 2-5 tapes.

    • Sub-subseries I.A.1. BetacamSP Tapes. 2000-2002.
    • These tapes are the original tapes that were used in filming the oral history interviews. They are the smaller BetacamSP "S" format (6"x3.5"x1"). These tapes contain the raw footage from the interview as well as the interviewer introductions. The S format BetacamSP tapes hold roughly 30 minutes of film and at the time of recording were the standard professional choice for video-recording.

    • Sub-subseries I.A.2. VHS Tapes. 2000-2004.
    • VHS copies of the tapes in Sub-subseries I.A.1. were made for editing purposes. The VHS duplicates contain a "window burn" clock, a small counter along the bottom of the image that displays the running time of the video. This clock is necessary for editing the final version of the interview.

  • Subseries I.B. Master Edited Copies. 2000-2002.
  • Master edited videotaped versions of the oral history interviews are located in Subseries I.B. A master copy is used to designate the original copy of a film or video. These edited tapes were produced through an outside vendor using the raw footage tapes located in Subseries I.A. The edited versions of the oral history interviews have interview introductions, production titles, and feature a continuous cut of the interview. Also included in this series is the master copy of the production video, "Observations on the Eradication of the New World Screwworm," which includes clips from several of the interviews. Transcripts were made from these edited versions, not the raw footage, and no content was edited out unless there was a technical reason for doing so during the editing process. The large format BetacamSP tapes (Sub-subseries I.B.1.) are the original master edited copies; these tapes were used to produce master VHS copies. Master copies should only be used to create preservation copies, not for research viewing purposes.

    • Sub-subseries I.B.1. BetacamSP Tapes. 2000-2002.
    • The BetacamSP tapes in this series are large "L" format (10"x5.5"x1") and are the original tapes that were produced by an outside video-editing vendor using the tapes in Series I.A. "L" format BetacamSP tapes hold 90 minutes worth of footage. These tapes were used to produce the VHS tapes in Sub-subseries I.B.2. Clips from the "Observations on the Eradication of the New World Screwworm" video were taken from these tapes.

    • Sub-subseries I.B.2. VHS Tapes. 2000-2002.
    • The VHS tapes in Sub-subseries I.B.2. are the master tapes containing the edited version of the oral history interviews. Preservation copies were made from these tapes.

  • Subseries I.C. Preservation Copies. 2000-2001.
  • Subseries I.C. includes the preservation copies for 10 of the oral history interviews in VHS format. Preservation copies are not used for research purposes; they should be stored in an archive to ensure future use and to reproduce viewing copies. Preservation copies were made from the master copies.

  • Subseries I.D. Viewing Copies. 2000-2001.
  • This subseries contains multiple viewing copies of each oral history interview in VHS format. The viewing copy is the format designated for research use.

Series II. Oral History Audiocassettes. 2000-2002. 1 box.

Oral history interviews in audiocassette format are located in Series II. Two of the interviews, Muhammad F.B. Chaudhury and Henri C. Charpentier, were recorded on audiocassettes only; the other four audiocassettes were produced from the original video interviews. This series is arranged alphabetically by the interviewee's last name.

Series III. Transcripts. 2000-2002. 1 box.

Series III is comprised of the interview transcripts of the oral history interviews. The printed transcripts are arranged alphabetically by the interviewee's last name.


Appendix A: Related Collections

Listed below are screwworm related manuscript collections housed in Special Collections, National Agricultural Library as of June 2007:

Artifacts: Screwworm Eradication Program Records. Manuscript Collection 348.

Audiovisual Materials: Screwworm Eradication Program Records. Manuscript Collection 215.

Baumhover, Alfred H., Papers: Screwworm Eradication Program Records. Manuscript Collection 266.

Graham, Owen Hugh, Papers: Screwworm Eradication Program Records. Manuscript Collection 213.

Husman, Chester N., Awards: Screwworm Eradication Program Records. Manuscript Collection 349.

International Collection: Screwworm Eradication Program Records. Manuscript Collection 355.

Knipling, Edward Fred, Papers: Screwworm Eradication Program Records. Manuscript Collection 210.

Oral Histories: Screwworm Eradication Program Records. Manuscript Collection 305.

Promotional Materials: Screwworm Eradication Program Records. Manuscript Collection 214.

Severn Run's Cazador (Caz), Screwworm Detection Dog, Collection: Screwworm Eradication Program Records. Manuscript Collection 310.

Southeastern United States Collection: Screwworm Eradication Program Records. Manuscript Collection 212.

Southwestern United States and Mexico Collection: Screwworm Eradication Program Records. Manuscript Collection 211.

USDA Entomology Research Division Records. Manuscript Collection 237.

Wyss, John, Papers: Screwworm Eradication Program Records. Manuscript Collection 338.


Bibliography

Baumhover, Alfred H., Papers: Screwworm Eradication Program Records. Special Collections, National Agricultural Library.

Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-Present. "Eligio (Kika) de la Garza II." Accessed June 8, 2006 from http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=D000203.

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