The U.S. National Animal Parasite Collection Records

USDA-ARS Animal Parasitology Institute Logo Introduction

The U.S. National Animal Parasite Collection Records span over 100 years and consist of 167 linear feet of line drawings, photographs, lantern slides, negatives, and printing blocks of animal parasites; materials on the history of animal parasitology research at USDA, including employee biographies and photographs, program and building information, parasite documentation, and films. Publications, journals, and proceedings accompanying the collection are housed with library book collections and their records indicate association with this collection.

The records were transferred from the Biosystematics and U.S. National Parasite Collection Unit to the National Agricultural Library (NAL) between 2001 and 2006, and several donations in 2014 and 2015, including the office files of J. Ralph Lichtenfels.  Much of the collection was stored in an enclosed porch of Building 1180 in BARC-East where temperature and humidity fluctuations were damaging many of the rare and unique items.  The materials were in overstuffed, acidic folders or stored loose in cabinet drawers.  The U.S National Animal Parasite Collection’s volunteer Don Polling performed much of the re-housing work of the drawings portion of the collection. Additional rehousing was done by NAL staff.  Archival arrangement and description activities were completed by Sara Lee, Deborah Richardson, Rita Todaro, and Diane Wunsch.  The finding aid was written by Sara Lee and Diane Wunsch from 2014-2015.

View the related web exhibit telling the story of USDA’s contributions to veterinary parasitology.


Disclaimer

Special Collections of the National Agricultural Library (NAL) acquires, arranges, describes, preserves and makes available rare materials significant to the history of agriculture. Materials are obtained through donation or active collection in accordance with the established Special Collections collection development policy. Special Collections staff organize and describe materials according to archival principles and create descriptions and indexes to enhance access. Staff do not edit or otherwise modify the original materials. The views expressed in the collections do not necessarily reflect the policies of the National Agricultural Library or the United States Department of Agriculture.


Disclaimer

Special Collections of the National Agricultural Library (NAL) acquires, arranges, describes, preserves and makes available rare materials significant to the history of agriculture. Materials are obtained through donation or active collection in accordance with the established Special Collections collection development policy. Special Collections staff organize and describe materials according to archival principles and create descriptions and indexes to enhance access. Staff do not edit or otherwise modify the original materials. The views expressed in the collections do not necessarily reflect the policies of the National Agricultural Library or the United States Department of Agriculture.


Biographical Sketch

John Scott Andrews was responsible for collecting most of the materials in this collection as a former employee and author of histories on parasitology.

Andrews (1905-1988) earned a B.S. in zoology and M.S. in parasitology at Purdue University.  After graduating he started work for the Zoological Division, Bureau of Animal Industry on July 1, 1930 and was assigned to the Sheep Parasite Project.  At that time, the first parasite laboratory was under construction at the Beltsville Agricultural Center and Andrews occupied the building in December.  By June 1938 Andrews earned a doctorate in helminthology at Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health.  In November 1938, Andrews resigned from the Division to become parasitologist at the Puerto Rico Agricultural Experiment Station in Rio Pedras, Puerto Rico, to work on the internal parasites of dairy cattle.  After 2 ½ years, he returned to the Zoological Division and was appointed Parasitologist in Charge of its Swine Parasite Laboratory at the Coastal Plain Experiment Station in Tifton, Georgia.  He spent 12 years working on control measures designed to prevent the infection of pigs with internal parasites.  Andrews returned to Beltsville in September 1953 where he researched atrophic rhinitis in swine, and later, on trichinosis. He was head of the Helminthologial Investigations from 1956 until the position was abolished.  Andrews retired from government service at the end of July 1975.  He then became a visiting scientist and worked on the history of the Animal Parasitology Institute from its beginning in 1923.  Andrews died suddenly on March 8, 1988.  His manuscript was published posthumously as Animal Parasite Research in the Zoological Division, Bureau of Animal Industry, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C., 1923-1938.


Historical Sketch

The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) established the Bureau of Animal Industry (BAI) in 1884.  Under the direction of Daniel Elmer Salmon (Daniel E. Salmon), who oversaw the Department’s veterinary disease experiment station the previous year, the BAI set out to study animal diseases and address the many problems they caused in the domestic and global livestock trade. The first staff of the BAI included Theobald Smith, Fred Kilborne, and Cooper Curtice.  Parasitological work began in 1886 under the direction of Curtice.

Expansion of livestock research increased the BAI’s activities.  By 1891, the Bureau was made up of four divisions, one of which was the Division of Animal Pathology.  This division’s Zoological Laboratory was home to the USDA’s animal parasite research. Curtice, who had been named the assistant in charge of the Zoological Laboratory, resigned in that year and was replaced by Charles Wardell Stiles (Charles W. Stiles).  Stiles and his assistant, Albert J. Hassall, began two projects that would eventually reach international prominence in the field of parasitology: the BAI’s Parasite Collection and the Index-Catalogue of Medical Veterinary Zoology.  The Zoological Laboratory’s work in parasitology came to be recognized as a distinct entity within the Bureau of Animal Industry.  When the Animal Pathology and Biochemic Divisions moved from the Department of Agriculture’s main building in Washington, D.C. to rented space at 1362 B Street, S.W., the laboratory relocated there as well.

The next two decades brought many changes to the Zoological Laboratory. Stiles was appointed scientific attaché to the American Embassy in Berlin, where he served from 1898 to 1899. After his return, he conducted research on hookworm disease in humans and discovered Necator americanus, a hookworm species responsible for widespread illness in the American South.  This led to a successful campaign to eradicate hookworms, which resulted in tremendous improvements in the health and economic status of the people in rural communities.

In 1903, Stiles left the BAI to further his work in the public health sector.  He joined the U.S. Public Health and Marine Hospital Service, and Brayton Howard Ransom (B.H. Ransom) replaced him as head of the Zoological Laboratory. Hassall continued work on the comprehensive Index-Catalog of Medical Veterinary Zoology, which was published in sections beginning in 1902.  In 1906, Ransom became head of the newly-formed Zoological Division and moved its operations into the east wing of the USDA’s new headquarters building two years later. Other important scientists to join the division around this time included Maurice Crowther Hall (M.C. Hall) (1907) and Benjamin Schwartz (1915).

During the 1920s the Zoological Division’s research efforts spread outside the District of Columbia into other states and countries. Experiments conducted at various stations contributed new methods for the control of parasitic diseases in animals and safer meat production. Leadership of the division changed once again as M. C. Hall became the new chief following Ransom’s untimely death in 1925. In 1928, Hall expanded and reorganized the division’s research programs, grouping parasite research projects according to animal host species.

In 1930, the Zoological Division established a field laboratory at the Beltsville, Maryland farm run by the BAI’s Animal Husbandry Division, where its parasitologists had been conducting experiments. Lawrence Avery, who started as a laboratory technician with the division, became the administrative officer of the new field station.  By 1931, the Beltsville laboratory was recognized as an autonomous unit of the Zoological Division.

The Bankhead-Jones Act of 1935 enabled the Zoological Division to greatly expand its research programs. The following year, the U.S. National Museum’s Helminthological Collection was combined with the Bureau of Animal Industry’s Parasite Collection at the Beltsville laboratory to form one of the world’s largest specimen-based collections of animal parasites. 

M.C. Hall resigned from the Bureau in 1936. Benjamin Schwartz took charge as the last head of the Zoological Division. In 1942, the rest of the Zoological Division was moved from Washington, D.C. to Beltsville to join the laboratory operation.

When the USDA eliminated its system of Bureaus in 1953, the parasitology laboratory of the Zoological Division, Bureau of Animal Industry became the Beltsville Parasitological Laboratory (BPL) of the Animal Disease and Parasitic Research Branch, Agricultural Research Service. By 1961 the laboratory had moved to a 400-acre tract of the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center. The location change expanded the laboratory’s capacity for raising and pasturing farm animals and for conducting pasture experiments.

By the end of the 1960s, the laboratory’s name changed again to the National Animal Parasite Laboratory. In 1972, it became known as the Animal Parasitology Institute.

On January 4, 1984, the Animal Parasitology Institute underwent a major internal reorganization.  Its three host-oriented laboratories and the Parasite Classification and Distribution Unit were abolished and replaced by three new laboratories.  The titles of these new laboratories reflected the emphasis on the parasite in the Institute’s research program; they included the Helminth Diseases Laboratory, the Protozoan Diseases Laboratory, and the Biosystematics Laboratory.

During the 1990s and early 2000s, the organizational name for parasitological work changed with various reorganizations and consolidation of laboratories.  As of 2015, staff conducts research in the Animal Parasitic Disease Laboratory (APDL). 

 

Outline of Organizational Structure of Animal Parasitology Work (From Houck, 1924 and updated thereafter by library staff)

Date(s)

Event

1883-1884

Veterinary Division

1884

United States Department of Agriculture established the Bureau of Animal Industry

1886

Zoological Laboratory established within the Bureau of Animal Industry

1886

Start of animal parasitology research at Bureau of Animal Industry

1891

Bureau was divided into four sections with parasite research assigned to the "Zoological Laboratory" of the Division of Animal Pathology

1892

Start of the Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology and the Parasite Collection

1901

Zoological Laboratory name changed to Zoological Division, Bureau of Animal Industry

1930-1942

Name changed to Beltsville Laboratory of the Zoological Division, Bureau of Animal Industry

1935

The Beltsville Research Center changed name to the Agricultural Research Center

1941

Plant Industry Station move from Arlington Farm to Beltsville, which expanded into the Agricultural Research Center

February 23, 1942

The six research bureaus, the Office of Experiment Stations, and the Beltsville Research Center combined to form the Agricultural Research Administration

1942-1953

Zoological Division, Animal Disease and Parasite Research Branch, Bureau of Animal Industry, Agricultural Research Administration, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center

November 2, 1953

Agricultural Research Administration and the Bureaus were abolished and reformed into the Agricultural Research Service

1953-1957

Name changed to the Beltsville Parasitological Laboratory (BPL) of the Animal Disease and Parasitic Research Branch (ADPRB) of the Agricultural Research Service

1957-1970

Name changed to Beltsville Parasitological Laboratory of the Animal Disease and Parasitic Research Division of the Agricultural Research Service

1970-1971

Name changed to the National Animal Parasite Laboratory,Veterinary Sciences Research Division, Agricultural Research Service

1971-1972

Name changed to the Animal Parasitology Institute, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, East, Northeastern Region, Agricultural Research Service

January 4, 1984

Animal Parasitology Institute reorganized into three laboratories: Protozoan Diseases Laboratory under Michael D. Ruff, the Helminthic Diseases Laboratory under K. Darwin Murrell, and the Biosystematics Laboratory under J. Ralph Lichtenfels

1990-2000

Name changed to Biosystematics and National Parasite Collection Unit, Livestock and Poultry Sciences Institute, Agricultural Research Service

November 19, 2000-January 12, 2003

Agricultural Research Service reorganized.  Name changed to Parasite Biology, Epidemiology and Systematics Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Agricultural Research Service

2004

Name changed to Animal Parasitic Disease Laboratory (APDL)

June 2014

The U.S. National Animal Parasite Collection (specimens) was transferred to the Smithsonian Institution and National Museum of History; USDA no longer has operational controls for the collection but does have responsibility for management of materials and specimens


Scope and Content Note

This collection documents USDA parasite investigations, especially taxonomic and systematic work, from 1886 to 2003.  The content of the collection also covers some of the history of parasitology in North America and globally as early as 1767, and the history of research conducted on helminth (worms) and arthropod species (mainly ticks).  Parasite illustrations, including works in original hand-drawn format and in various stages of preparation for publishing, make up the majority of this collection.  The second largest group of materials includes lantern slides, negatives, and photographs of parasites.  Other materials detail the history of the Animal Parasite Institute and include correspondence, research notes and data, publication drafts, manuscripts, articles, reports, written histories, photographs, motion pictures, journals, clippings, meeting minutes, and artifacts.  The collection is comprised of 160 boxes occupying 167 linear feet.  Materials are in fair to good condition.  There are no restrictions on access or use of the collection.

The extensive collection of documents and images that makes up the U.S. National Animal Parasite Collection Records in the National Agricultural Library’s Special Collections complements the United States National Parasite Collection (USNPC), which is among the largest specimen-based collections in the world. The USNPC, developed and continuously maintained by the USDA since 1892, serves as a national and international resource for research in parasitology.  In 2014, the entire USNPC (including fluid specimens, slide specimens, frozen tissues, and reprints) was moved from its long-time home at the USDA’s Henry A. Wallace Beltsville Agricultural Research Center in Maryland to the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C.  

The document collection at NAL represents significant efforts by USDA scientists to publish and disseminate their research findings.  Much of the collection consists of more than fifteen thousand drawings of nearly one thousand parasite species.  Scientists rendered drawings of parasites as they examined specimens in the laboratory.  These visual representations, along with detailed written notes, were the means by which scientists recorded the characteristics of specific parasite species and prevented the renaming of previously discovered species.  Drawings were frequently used to illustrate USDA publications and journal articles.  When the Biosystematics and U.S. National Parasite Collection Unit donated their files to the National Agricultural Library between 2001 and 2006, the collection of drawings had been maintained as a reference resource for USDA staff.  The parasite drawings of various sizes and formats, along with some related illustrations and photographs used in publications, make up Series I of this collection.

Series II consists of photographic materials, including glass plate positives (lantern slides), glass plate negatives, acetate negatives, and photographic prints.  Images in these various formats show individual parasite specimens.

Materials used for a number of projects chronicling the history of the Animal Parasitology Institute compose Series III.  Items were gathered by John S. Andrews during his term as a visiting scientist at the Animal Parasitology Institute in the early 1980s.  The materials representing the history of the Institute are grouped together, although many were most likely collected from various sources by Andrews to write his publications. Andrews was the former head of helminthological investigations at the Beltsville Parasitology Laboratory, Animal Disease and Parasite Research Division of the USDA’s Agricultural Research Service.  He began work for USDA in 1930, and pages from his diary for the years 1930 and 1931 are included among the papers in Series III.  Several publications written by Andrews on the history of parasitology are listed in the bibliography. Notes he took while researching and writing these publications appear throughout this series.

Series III is comprised of six subseries.  The first, Subseries III.A, contains general historical information about the field of parasitology and parasite research conducted by USDA.  Subseries III.B contains photographic materials that document people, facilities, and research activities of the Animal Parasite Institute and the Beltsville Parasitological Laboratory. Of particular note are the photographs of animal research from Beltsville and the USDA’s regional research laboratories, as well as the portraits file, part of which contains studio portraits of prominent parasitologists and veterinary scientists collected by Brayton Howard Ransom in 1913. Subseries III.C consists of a set of portraits, drawn in charcoal, of Animal Parasite Institute staff.  The largest group is Subseries III.D, which contains manuscripts and personal papers of Animal Parasite Institute staff.  Some highlights of this subseries include John S. Andrews’ notes and drafts for API publications; personal papers of Brayton Howard Ransom, including correspondence and honors; correspondence of Charles Wardell Stiles, including letters from his two years serving as scientific attaché in Berlin during a German embargo on American pork; and Leonard Erwin Swanson’s papers related to swine parasite research conducted at USDA’s regional research laboratories from the mid-1920s to early 1950s.  Subseries III.E comprises partial sets of bibliographic and taxonomic information on cestodes, digenes, and nematodes.  These sets consist of notes, excerpts, and copies of articles.  Finally, in Subseries III.F are motion picture films and filmstrips about animal parasite work, along with notes and transcripts from some of these works.

Series IV consists of the office files of J. Ralph Lichtenfels, former curator of the U.S. National Parasite Collection and Research Leader of the Biosystematic Parasitology Laboratory. Of note is correspondence related to the loan of parasite specimens from the U.S. National Parasite Collection and Animal Parasitology Institute reports highlighting research efforts and accomplishments of the staff.

Series V contains engraved printing blocks used for printing illustrations in USDA publications, journal articles, and textbooks.


Series Descriptions

Series I. Parasite Illustrations. 1898-1971. 46 boxes.

This series consists mainly of drawings of animal parasites created by staff in the Beltsville Parasitological Laboratory and predecessor offices. Many of the images in this series may have been intended for use in publications. Drawings were done in pencil or pen and vary in size. Some were created on paper and some on cardboard; some paper pieces are glued to cardboard. Photographs, negatives, textual notes, or drafts of documents occasionally accompany the drawings. Approximately ten thousand drawings were re-housed, organized, and labeled with the scientific name of the parasite and the date of the drawings, if known. Materials were maintained in original order by specific parasite name in order to keep items of different formats associated with their subjects. The items were placed in acid-free envelopes and folders, and arranged alphabetically by genus and species.

Subseries I.A. Standard-size Illustrations. 1767-1963. 26 boxes.

The illustration materials in this series fit standard 8.5” x 11” letter-size file folders and are arranged by parasite name. Drawings, photographs, and other illustrations in boxes 25 and 26 were associated with specific publications. These materials were originally unordered, but have been grouped by publication title or by the name of a scientist recorded on an associated envelope. Unidentified images are placed last in the series.

Subseries I.B. Oversize Illustrations. 1847-1971, undated. 20 boxes.

Drawings and other illustrations larger than letter-size are organized separately in legal or oversize boxes. Many of the oversize items consist of multiple drawings attached to cardboard backing. Individual drawings may or may not be labeled. Some drawings are separated from their cardboard backing or missing entirely. It appears that many of the oversized pieces were “figures” or “plates” created for publications such as USDA Farmers’ Bulletins or leaflets. Other materials include report jackets, drawings, and photographs from the Bureau of Animal Industry editorial office. There are also oversized charts and posters (both numbered and unnumbered) that may have been used for presentations. The oversize materials are grouped first by box size and then in alphabetical order by parasite name within each box.

This subseries also contains the following subseries:

  • Subseries I.B.1. Oversize Illustrations (A-M). 1899-1940, undated. 1 box.
  • Subseries I.B.2. Oversize Illustrations (N-Z). 1896-1940, undated. 1 box.
  • Subseries I.B.3. Oversize Illustrations (A-K). 1847-1953, undated. 1 box.
  • Subseries I.B.4. Oversize Illustrations (L-O). 1893-1931, undated. 1 box.
  • Subseries I.B.5. Oversize Illustrations (P-V). 1862-1938, undated. 1 box.
  • Subseries I.B.6. Oversize Illustrations (A-H). 1882-1940, undated. 1 box.
  • Subseries I.B.7. Oversize Illustrations (L-O). 1861-1959, undated. 1 box.
  • Subseries I.B.8. Oversize Illustrations (P-W). 1910-1966, undated. 1 box.
  • Subseries I.B.9. Oversize Illustrations (A-T). 1905-1942, undated. 1 box.
  • Subseries I.B.10. Oversize Illustrations (multiple species). 1920-1939, undated. 1 box.
  • Subseries I.B.11. Oversize Illustrations (diagrams). undated. 1 box.
  • Subseries I.B.12. Oversize Illustrations (miscellanous materials by parasite name or subject, A-F). 1883-1946, undated. 1 box.
  • Subseries I.B.13. Oversize Illustrations (miscellanous materials by parasite name or subject, I-L). 1955, undated. 1 box.
  • Subseries I.B.14. Oversize Illustrations (miscellanous materials by parasite name or subject, M-R). 1935-1971, undated. 1 box.
  • Subseries I.B.15. Oversize Illustrations (miscellanous materials by parasite name or subject, S-Z). 1913-1941, undated. 1 box.
  • Subseries I.B.16. Oversize Illustrations (Farmers’ Bulletins). 1898-1953. 1 box.
  • Subseries I.B.17. Oversize Illustrations (Leaflets). 1928-1957. 1 box.
  • Subseries I.B.18. Oversize Illustrations (unidentified). Undated. 3 boxes.

Series II. Parasite Photographic Materials. 1902-1977, undated. 51 boxes.

This series consists of glass plate positives (lantern slides), glass plate and acetate negatives (accompanied by an alphabetical and numerical index), publication reprint negatives, photographs, and oversize photographs mounted on cardboard. At the end of this series are materials from various stages of the publication process, such as manuscript galleys and reprint negatives. These materials are retained in this series as the photographs and negatives were part of the publication process.

Subseries II.A. Lantern Slides. 1906-1940, undated. 9 boxes.

This subseries contains approximately 700 glass plate positives (also called lantern slides). Each 3” x 4” slide is numbered and filed with an index card that gives a caption for the image. Some slides have both a lantern slide number and a negative number noted on the label.

Subseries II.B. Glass Plate Negatives. 1902-1938, undated. 31 boxes.

There are approximately 3,500 glass plate negatives of various sizes in this subseries. Each plate is numbered but there are no captions on the envelopes. A card index to glass plate negatives is filed at the end of this subseries. The index consists of two parts: the first part lists negatives by number and the second part lists them alphabetically by subject. Images depict parasite specimens, drawings, micrographs of parasite sections, scientist portraits, diagrams, figures for publications (index card may include figure number, publication title, and volume number). Note that there is an appendix to this finding aid that lists names of parasites for which there is an index card.

Subseries II.C. Glass Exhibit Plates. Undated. 3 boxes.

The heavy glass plates in this set are framed in brass and measure 10.75” x 10.75”. Some are labeled “U.S. Public Health Service”. The plates depict parasite specimens and were probably part of a display.

Subseries II.D. Parasite Photographs. 1909-1965, undated. 6 boxes.

This subseries contains both standard-size and oversize material. It includes photographs that are unnumbered, along with numbered prints that correspond to the indexed negatives in Subseries II.B above.

Subseries II.E. Publication Process Galleys and Negatives. 1935-1977, undated. 2 boxes.

Consists primarily of articles that were published in professional journals, including American Journal of Veterinary Research, Journal of Parasitology, Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, and others.

Series III. History of the Animal Parasite Institute. 1867-1990s. 50 boxes.

This series includes information on the animal parasite research of the United States Department of Agriculture’s Bureau of Animal Industry beginning in the late 1800s. The materials trace the beginning of animal parasite work in Washington, D.C., followed in 1930 by the establishment of the Animal Parasite Laboratory at the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center in Maryland.

Subseries III.A. General Information. 1884-1984. 4 boxes.

These materials include general information about the history of parasitology and the animal research conducted by USDA since its establishment in 1862, with specific information on USDA parasite research. Documents trace parasitological work conducted at Beltsville, Maryland and at regional research laboratories.

Subseries III.B. Photographs. 1867-1990s. 16 boxes.

Photographs and/or negatives were produced and organized by various employees during their tenures at USDA. Lawrence Avery, the Beltsville Parasitological Laboratory’s first administrative officer (1929 to1945) took photographs during the construction of the laboratory and its associated buildings. Robert G. Leek supplied images of the laboratory before, during, and after its move to the Animal Disease Station area of the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center (1957 to1961). Some of these images were used in various films produced by the Animal Parasite Institute and in publications on the history of parasite work written by John S. Andrews. Photograph folders may contain an assortment of photographs related to the Animal Parasitology Institute, or may be labeled for specific buildings, laboratories, or staff members. Some folders contain duplicates. Folders are arranged in chronological order or approximate time period.

Subseries III.B.1. Photographs - Lists. 1913-1981, undated. 2 boxes.

This section contains typewritten lists of photographs, slides shows, and images used in films.

Subseries III.B.2. Photographs – Albums. 1930s-1963. 1 box.

There are four photograph albums containing primarily images of employees and early USDA buildings.

Subseries III.B.3. Photographs – Portraits File. 1878-1984, undated. 3 boxes.

A “portraits file” was created by the Animal Parasite Institute staff and consists of photographs or published images of scientists from around the world. They are filed alphabetically by first letter of the subject’s last name. Some of the pictures were collected by Brayton Howard Ransom in 1913 when he wrote to notable contemporaries in parasitology and veterinary science and exchanged portraits with them. The bulk of these materials depict early- to mid-twentieth century subjects. Portraits of Ransom and Cooper Curtice were moved to this series from their personal papers series.

Subseries III.B.4. Photographs – Staff (Groups). 1893-circa 1990s. 2 boxes.

This subseries consists of group photographs of USDA Bureau of Animal Industry staff and other group photographs produced during the Animal Parasite Institute’s history. These images encompass employee photographs from the 1890s to 1990s, including Washington, D.C., Beltsville, and regional staffs, conference attendees, and award recipients. Some of these images were used in John S. Andrews’ writings on the history of USDA’s animal parasite research.

Subseries III.B.5. Photographs – Buildings. 1867-1990s. 3 boxes.

Among the images in this series are some depicting the facilities built at the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center between the 1930s and 1960s. Aerial photographs from various dates are included; some of these were taken by Soil Conservation Service photographer K.S. Montgomery during a 1936 ride in the Goodyear Blimp. One group of photographs documents the buildings constructed as Public Works Administration (PWA) projects.

Subseries III.B.6. Photographs – Animal Research. Circa late 1800s or 1904-1983, undated. 4 boxes.

This series includes photographs of animal research conducted by parasitologists at Beltsville and at the regional research laboratories in Bloomington, Illinois; Moultrie, Georgia; Tifton, Georgia; and Denver, Colorado. Photographs of swine sanitation in Illinois, the Nebraska state fair, and pathology of swine were collected by Hayes B. Raffensperger. Other photographs were produced by R. T. Habermann, Merle Colglazier, John M. Vetterling, Ralph T. Zimmerman, and J. Ralph Lichtenfels.

Subseries III.B.7. Photographs – Used in Publications and Films. 1891-1978, undated. 1 box.

These are groups of photographs originally labeled for use with particular publications. Many are duplicates of those found in other photograph series. Materials are arranged by publication title. This subseries includes prints used for the film “BPL Moves to ADS” (circa 1977-1978). Prior to the film’s production, photographer Nancy Ringgold was hired to document the buildings, people, and work done at the Beltsville Parasitological Laboratory. This series includes her 35mm prints and negative strips.

Subseries III.C. Portrait Drawings. 1942-circa 1988, undated. 1 box and 11 framed items.

This series consists of charcoal portraits of previous parasitology administrators beginning with Cooper Curtice in 1886 and concluding with Ronald Fayer in 1988. One drawing includes artist Marton Hall Murray’s signature; possibly other artists shared in creating the portaits. These drawings range in size from 2’ x 2’6” to 3’ x 4’ and were originally framed in 2” wide wood. There are several, unframed duplicate draft copies. The framed portraits were formerly displayed in the Animal Parasitology Institute’s offices.

Subseries III.D. Selected Manuscripts and Personal Papers of Animal Parasite Institute Staff. (circa 1918) 1930-1999, undated. 24 boxes.

Staff papers include documents such as biographies, retirement information, obituaries, photographs, field notebooks, manuscripts, correspondence, and personal memorabilia collected by individuals who worked at the Animal Parasite Institute.

Subseries III.D.1. Various Scientists. 1901-1999. 3 boxes.

Materials of scientists included are those whom John S. Andrews researched for his various publications.

Subseries III.D.2. John Scott Andrews. 1930-1987. 5 boxes.

Andrews’ papers are arranged in the following order: administrative materials, correspondence, research materials, and publications/drafts. Among these are Andrews’ notes and rough drafts of the publication titled Animal Parasite Research in the Zoological Division, Bureau of Animal Industry, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C., 1923-1938, which was published posthumously by the Animal Parasitology Institute in [1993]. There are also notes and rough drafts of Andrews’ contribution to 100 Years of Animal Health 1884-1984.

This subseries also contains the following subseries:

  • Series III.D.2.a. John Scott Andrews – General: Administrative. 1975-1983. .5 box.
  • Series III.D.2.b. John Scott Andrews – Publications: General. 1930-1984. .5 boxes.
  • Series III.D.2.c. John Scott Andrews – Publications: Animal Parasite Research in the Zoological Division, Bureau of Animal Industry, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C., Washington, D.C., 1923-1938. 1974-1986. 2 boxes.
  • Series III.D.2.d. John Scott Andrews – Publications: “Animal Parasitology in the United States Department of Agriculture, 1886-1984.” 100 Years of Animal Health 1884-1984. 1983-1987, undated. 2 boxes.
Subseries III.D.3. Albert J. Hassall. 1911-1914, undated. 1 box.

Hassall’s papers include correspondence, bibliographic notes and index cards.

Subseries III.D.4. Brayton Howard Ransom. 1899-1926, undated. 1 box.

Ransom’s materials include biographical information, obituaries, correspondence, notebooks, certificates, and school and personnel records. A small number of photographs, both prints and negatives, of Ransom with colleagues and family members are contained here. His collection of scientists’ portraits is filed in subseries III.B.3.

Subseries III.D.5. Charles Wardell Stiles. 1892-1905. 6 boxes.

The papers consist mostly of Stiles’ correspondence from 1892 to 1905, which includes his two years serving as scientific attaché to the United States Embassy in Berlin. Other documents include a research manuscript, zoological nomenclature notes, and memorabilia.

Subseries III.D.6. Leonard Erwin Swanson. 1925-1951. 8 boxes.

Swanson’s papers consist primarily of his correspondence with his supervisor and other USDA scientists and cooperators related to the swine and liver fluke research conducted at the USDA Regional Research Laboratories. Also included are reports and projects, along with drafts and final versions of articles and publications regarding research on specific parasites. Materials are organized in approximate chronological order for each laboratory site.

This subseries also contains the following subseries:

  • Series III.D.6.a. Leonard Erwin Swanson –Regional Research Laboratory: Chicago. 1925-1937. .25 box.
  • Series III.D.6.b. Leonard Erwin Swanson –Regional Research Laboratory: Southern Region. 1926-1941. 2.75 boxes.
  • Series III.D.6.c. Leonard Erwin Swanson –Regional Research Laboratory: Western Region. 1931-1951. 5 boxes.

Subseries III.E. Cestodes, Digenes, and Nematode Clippings. Circa late 1800s, early 1900s. 4 boxes.

This series consists of article copies, clippings, lists, and bibliographic material related to taxonomy work on cestodes, digenes, and nematodes. Materials are filed alphabetically by genus and species. The digenes sequence appears to be complete, but some alphabetical sections are missing entirely from the cestode and nematode sets.

Subseries III.F. Films. 1954-1980. 1 box and 6 canisters.

Materials in this series include textual information on films including the narrative for a (never produced) movie showing move of Beltsville Parasitological Laboratory (Zoological Division, Bureau of Animal Industry) to former Animal Disease Station site, 1960-61, 1979-80; includes production notes and script. Films include 16 mm works on trichinosis, lungworm, hookworm, and several other parasites. The majority of this series consists of various cuts of films that may have been used for a trichinosis film project.

Series III. Oversize Materials. 3 boxes.

Oversize materials were separated from their original boxes in Series III. Items are primarily photographs. There are also Beltsville land acquisition maps, blueprints, and documents as well as a Cooper Curtice chart used for presentations.

Series IV. Additions: J. Ralph Lichtenfels Files. 1959-2000. 6 boxes.

New additions consist of the files of J. Ralph Lichtenfels, including biographical information, research notebook, correspondence, conference and meeting information, and subject files.

Series V. Additions: Printing Blocks. Undated. 1 box.

New additions consist of printing blocks of parasites used for a variety of publications, including U.S. Department of Agriculture bulletins, journal articles, and textbooks. Many of the blocks are labeled with name of publication and plate number.


Appendix I - Negatives and Slides

Download the list of negatives and slides for this collection. (1.2 MB PDF)